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Influence of Confucianism●Focus on family, ethics, and society○Not nature or the world outside human affairs●Emphasized the ethical and moral dimensions of behavior and statecraft and the maintenance of aharmonious society.●Sustained status quo●Created divide between the educated and the crafts●Merchants and accumulated wealth antisocialWhat were the characteristics of Chinese technology?Chinese Technology●Practical●Production and industry owned by government●Artisans and engineers separate from education and learning●Working with hands looked down uponChinese Study Guide Part II:What made the Song Dynasty so successful?
The Song Dynasty(9601126)●Zenith of science and technology●Surplus food (agricultural changes)●Centralization of power●Urbanization●Issued paper money in 1024 (facilitated growth)●A leisured middle class arose along with the commercialization of agricultural commodities,increased trade, and expanded manufacturing.●The bureaucracy was huge; a report from Ming times puts the number of state civil servants at100k, exclusive of military officers.●Such organization allowed direct control by the emperor down to the village level.What was Chinese gunpowder first used for?●Discovered in 1044 in a book called The Military Classics●For incendiaries for bombs designed to be thrown from catapults●In order to set fire to things or produce poisonous smoke●Took about 200 yrs. From first recipes for it to actually explodeWhat were the three main ingredients used to make gunpowder?●Saltpeter which generates the oxygen○Has to be mixed with the other ingredients well the ones that burn●Sulfur●CharcoalWhat is the active ingredient in gunpowder?●Saltpeter●Sulfur and charcoal act as the fuel and saltpeter is the oxidizerWhy were the first recipes for gunpowder unable to produce explosions?●Not enough or not any saltpeter which is the key componentWhat functions did Su Song’s clock tower provide?●A song dynasty diplomat & civil servant Su Sung●Got a government commission to build a machine to replicate celestial movements○Also correct shortcomings in official calendar●Counted out the hours●Turned a bronze armillary sphere and celestial globe○In synchrony with the heavensHow did Su Song’s clock work?●40 foot high tower●Powered by a waterwheel●Controlled by complicated gearing●Had 133 different clock jacks to indicate and sound the hours●Featured oldest known endless powertransmitting chain drive called“Tian ti”●Chinese Rocket:
●Tied a bamboo tube to an arrow packed w/ gunpowder and add a fuse●Attached a small iron weight near feathers to tilt arrowhead up○Longer flight●Chinese used first for pyrotechnics●Earliest rockets ~ 1264●Next two centuries○Drilled holes in gunpowder for any even burn■Shot the gas backward allowing it to travel further■Constricted opening at the back making it even more powerful●Range of 10 football fields●Developed a multiple rocket launcher○Tipped with poisonWhat kind of conditions were Chinese Junks built for?