PAST CONTINUOUSShe said (that) she was learning French.PAST PERFECT SIMPLEHe said (that) he had written a reply.PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSShe said (that) she had been doing exercises.PAST PERFECT SIMPLEShe said (that) she had practised the piano.PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSHe said (that) he had been playing a computer game.FUTURE PASTHe said (that) he would book the tickets.She said (that) she would be marking tests.TO+BARE INFINITIVE He told me to stop talking.She asked us not to wastepaper.MODALHe said that he could write clearly.He asked if he should hang up the washing.He said that he might play tennis on Saturday.He said that he had to hand in his composition.TIME EXPRESSIONSthenthat daythe day before, the previous daythe next / following day, the day afterthe next / following week / monththe previous week / month, the week / month beforethe week beforetherethatthoseNotes1.The Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous do not change in indirect speech.She said, “I had expecteda reply.” She said she had expecteda reply.He said, “I had been workingthere for a while He said he had been workingthere for a while when we met.”when they met.2.The modals should, could, would, mightand ought todo not change in indirect speech.continuedcontinued
GRAMMAR APPENDIX GRAMMAR APPENDIX GRAMMAR APPENDIX 113.If thereportingverb is in the Present Simple, Present Perfect or Future Simple, the tense of the verb in the main clause does not change.He says, “I can comenext week.” He saysthat he can come next week.”4.When we report something which is a fact, we do not need to change the tense of the verb.She said, “PETA is an international organisation.” She explained that PETA is(was) an international organisation.5.a.In indirect speech, the first conditional is often reported as the second conditional.“IfI hearany news, I will tellyou,” she said. She said that ifshe heard any news, she would tellme.b.The second and third conditionals require no change in indirect speech.John said, “If I wona trip, I’d goto Thailand.” John said that ifhe wona trip, he’d goto Thailand.6.When we report questions, we change the word order to that of a regular sentence. (This is the same rule as for indirect questions.)a.Wh- Questions“Why are you crying?” he asked. He asked why I was crying.b.Yes /No Questions“Do you play basketball?” “No, I don’t.” She askedwhether / if I played basketball, and I replied that Ididn’t.