Neanderthalensi s 130000 30000 kya neander valley

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neanderthalensi s 130,000- 30,000 kya Neander Valley, Germany- 1856 Iraq, Uzbekistan, France, India, Israel 1300-1600 cc mean 1480 cc -Receding chin, low sloping forehead, protruding teeth nose face, prominent brow ridges, Large teeth- might have used for more than chewing food-teeth worn down to stubs & scratched Intentional burial sites: Le Moustier, La Chapelle-aux- Saints, La Ferrassie; Teshik- Tash, Uzbekistan; Shanidar, Iraq; Amud, Tabun, Kebara-Israel Band level -Intentional burial- Shanidar, Iraq- found neandertal in grave & pollen evidence for a certain kind of flower- maybe putting certain kind of flowers in grave, maybe natural, maybe accidental -Altruistic behavior?— survival of individuals who had significant health problems or had suffered severe trauma - adornment- perforated animal big game hunting- mammoth, bear, deer, etc.- have plant evidence that they were exploiting wild animal (but plant evidence is lacking) Schönningen, Germany-3 wooden spears w/ butchered remains of 20 wild horse •Isotopic evidence= very meat focused •Unsown hides for clothing- haven’t found any bone needles
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M ousterian : refines makes smaller more precise flakes ~63 different types bone and & teeth
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