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Roles of marriage and extended family vary across racial-ethnic groupsAfrican American FamiliesGreater % of single parent families than any other groupo72% of black children are both to unmarried mothersoMore than ½ of all black family households are headed by single parentDecline in marriage rates has dropped more for blacks than for other groupsExplaining the trends:oNot due to differential morals, values, or proclivities towards marriage, parenting, etc.oInstitutional racism & legacy of slavery:Blacks are more disadvantaged economicallyShortage of men: for every 3 unmarried women, there is 1 man with earnings above the poverty lineMass incarceration of black men and effects of drugs and violenceoUrban poverty & residential segregationCreation of residential segregation through formal and informal practices (redlining and preferential home mortgages for white families)Deindustrialization contributed to unemployment, urban decline, and higher residential segregation (white flight)Family Resilience:oEconomic hardship even after slavery kept the traditional nuclear family out of the reach of most African AmericansoBlack family as resilient and adaptive in the face of discrimination, migration, poverty, etc.American Indian FamiliesKinship networks important for sharing resources and conferring identityRemain economically disadvantaged (similar to blacks)Hispanic FamiliesAs such variation within the group (Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, etc) as between Hispanics and other groupsCohabitation more common, similar to marriageFamilism – often spoken of in reference of Hispanic families oGenerally the idea is you put the needs of your family above yourselfTransnational familiesoWhere dad lives in Mexico while the other parent lives in the US for workoMore common currently in Hispanics Asian American Families
Chapter 3 cont. & Notes from ReadingsIntermarriageMarriage between members of different racial or ethnic groupsIndicator of social distance– the level of acceptance that members of one group have toward members of another groupLoving v. Virginia (1967)Never illegal for Hispanics and whitesThere is more social distance between blacks and whites as indicated by the fact that this has been the most prominent laws between marriage of the twoUntil 1967 states with laws against marriage up until this case: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, north Carolina, south Carolina, Oklahoma, Texas,