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More research is needed that takes advantage of such measures of creativity within a sales organization to further understand how to stimulate the creativity of salespeople. Affect may be a key factor that facilitates creativity in sales-people. For instance, positive mood (e.g., happiness) is believed to enhance creativity (Baas, De Dreu, and Nijstad 2008). Research that provides more insight on the relationship between affect and sales creativity, and its subsequent effect on sales outcomes such as sales performance and customer satisfaction, is clearly needed.CONCLUSIONIt would be fair to conclude that the importance of the role of affect in personal selling and sales management contexts has
20Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Managementbeen increasingly realized in recent years. Substantial prog-ress has been made in understanding how affective processes influence various sales phenomena. This progress should not, however, be overstated. Although the role of affect in sales contexts is now an integral part of the discussion of most sales phenomena, much more insight is still needed in several areas where research has been relatively sparse. The increasingly expanding body of findings still has many gaps in it. Some of these have been identified in this paper and directions for future research have been suggested. It is important for salespeople and sales managers to be up-to-date on the rapid advances in the understanding of affective processes in fields such as psychology, neuroscience, and consumer behavior, and apply these advances in sales contexts. In markets that are increas-ingly hypercompetitive, the future of personal selling and sales management will depend increasingly on our understanding of affective processes to achieve a competitive advantage.REFERENCESAgnihotri, Raj, Adam Rapp, Prabakar Kothandaraman, and Rakesh K. Singh (2012), “An Emotion-Based Model of Salesperson Ethical Behaviors,” Journal of Business Ethics, 109 (2), 243–257.Arnold, Magda B. (1960), Emotion and Personality,New York: Columbia University Press.——— (1970), Feelings and Emotion,New York: Academic Press.Atuahene-Gima, Kwaku, and Haiyang Li (2002), “When Does Trust Matter? Antecedents and Contingent Effects of Supervisee Trust on Performance in Selling New Products in China and the United States,” Journal of Marketing,66 (3), 61–81.Babakus, Emin, David W. Cravens, Mark Johnston, and William C. Moncrief (1999), “The Role of Emotional Exhaustion in Sales Force Attitude and Behavior Relationships,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,27 (1), 58–70.Babin, Barry J., James S. Boles, and William A. Darden (1995), “Salesperson Stereotypes, Consumer Emotions, and Their Impact on Information Processing,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,23 (2), 94–105.———, Mitch Griffin, and James S. Boles (2004), “Buyer Reac-tions to Ethical Beliefs in the Retail Environment,” Journal of Business Research,57 (10), 1155–1163.