19. Describe reaction 7 of glycolysis. In your answer, note what is important in this reaction regarding ATP. What other product molecules are formed? Two more ATP molecules are formed plus two molecules of a three-carbon compound named pyruvic acid. The two ATP molecules used up in Reactions 1 and 2 were regained in Reaction 5. The two ATP molecules gained in Reaction 7 are a net gain in ATP, for the cell. 20. What is the net gain of ATP in glycolysis?2 21. Define substrate level phosphorylation – ATP formation by transferring via an enzyme phosphate group to ADP. 22. If no oxygen is available to accept electrons from NADrewhere do the electrons go? 23. What product is formed in animal cells from pyruvic acid (pyruvate) if there is no oxygen present? the reduction of pyruvic acid pyrubate produces lactic acid a three-carbon compound 24. What product is formed in plant cells from pyruvic acid (pyruvate) if there is no oxygen present? the reduction of pyruvic acid pyruvate results in the formation of ethyl alcohol a two-carbon compound) plus CO2 25. Define anaerobic. The absence of oxygen 26. Define aerobic. The presence of oxygen
27. Under anaerobic conditions, NADox picks up electrons in what reaction? And gives up these electrons where and to what? Under anaerobic (oxygen lacking) conditions, NAD shuttles back and forth picking up electrons (becoming NADre) in Reaction (4) and giving up the electrons in (becoming NADox) to pyruvic acid (pyruvate). 28. Define fermentation. The process of which the glycolysis pathway is the first stage, whereby carbohydrate is transferred in to alcohol lactic acid.