9 Four respondents will be interviewed using predetermined questions but allowing respondents to freely answer them in their own words. This type of interview is called semi-structured and allows a more clear and accurate picture of respondents’ position to be obtained (compared to structured interviews where respondents’ are limited to a number of proposed answers and a certain vocabulary). The participants have been selected as a non-probability , convenience sample, since it limits efforts in terms of time and resources. Such a sample could score relatively low on validity, nevertheless, it has been chosen because it is easy to draw and may still be relatively useful for gaining insights into a topic, in particular in the case of qualitative research. 10 2.3. Research quality The objective of research is to establish truthful and accurate findings, yet, the results of any study can only be as good as its measures and therefore it is important to evaluate the goodness of measures . 11 Particular attention should be paid to validity and reliability . These two factors ensure the scientific value of the research by asserting that findings are useful and appropriate. It 8 Ghauri & Grønhaug (2005), p 103 9 Ghauri & Grønhaug (2005), p 102-105 10 Ghauri & Grønhaug (2005), p 146 11 Sekaran (2000), p 209
9 can be mentioned that validity presumes reliability but the contrary does not necessarily hold true. 12 Evaluating research quality of the literature review Validity determines how truthful findings are, in other words, how well findings reflect reality. Three types of validity are distinguished: construct validity, internal validity and external validity. Considering that internal validity refers to the extent to which the research permits to conclude that a causal relationship exists between two (or more) variables, it is not of concern in this paper. The other elements of research quality shall be evaluated subsequently. Construct validity refers to the extent to which an operalization measures the concept, which it purports to measure. It is a particularly important element of research quality because it is a condition for meaningful and interpretable findings; without construct validity there can be neither internal nor external validity. 13 When knowledge of a topic is limited, the prime requirement to ensure validity is to gain a good understanding of the issue. By providing a careful presentation of the relevant concepts and theories, section 3 aims at enhancing the understanding of the topic so that there is a good match between what the study set out to measure and what it actually measured. The lack of a clear and generally accepted definition of trade-off is most likely the main hinder in ensuring good construct validity. In fact, there may be discrepancies between the concept trade-off as defined in this paper and as defined by other researchers, which may have a negative effect on construct validity. Unless the definitions are identical, the examined concept will differ from the one that the paper initially sets out to study.
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