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biologyfinalexamreview

But cannot leave the epididymis so they are removed

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but cannot leave the epididymis, so they are removed as waste o Ejaculation occurs as normal with sperm-less semen o Reversing a vasectomy: in most cases the vas deferens can be reconnected - Tubal ligation : an operation in which the uterine tubes can be clamped or cut o Ovulation still occurs & hormone levels do not change, but sperm cannot travel to the egg, nor can the egg reach the uterus o Reversing tubal ligation: in most cases the uterine tubes can be reconnected - Preventing ovulation o Hormone treatments such as the pill, patch, ring, or injection Include just enough progesterone to prevent ovulation 2. Preventing sperm & egg from meeting o Barrier methods such as female & male condoms , diaphragms, & sponges o Preventing implantation in the uterus An intrauterine device (IUD) is inserted into the cervix & prevents implantation if sperm do fertilize the egg - Hormonal contraceptives: o e.g. birth control pill, patch, insert (e.g. NuvaRing), or injection containing female hormones o Alters hormones to prevent ovulation o When used correctly, prevent pregnancy over 99% of the time - Less reliable techniques o Spermicide comes as a gel, foam, or even film & suppositories - Kills sperm on contact o Inserted into vagina o When used correctly, prevents pregnancy only ~70% of the time o Can be effective when paired with a condom if it is broken & a few sperm enter the vagina o Drawback: spermicide causes tissue irritation & can increase risk of HIV & other STDs
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- The rhythm method involves abstaining from intercourse during ovulation (most fertile time of menstrual cycle) - Withdrawal : “coitus interruptus” or “pull-out method” - Douching: attempting to wash sperm out of the vagina before they have entered the uterus - Emergency contraception : - The “morning after” pill contains high doses of the same hormones as in birth control pills - STDs: gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, HPV, Trichomoniasis, crab lice (gist of each, not stats) - Gonorrhea (bacteria): o Common symptoms = painful urination & discharge in both males and females o Can = infertility in women if untreated for long o Half of affected women show no symptoms o 700,000 new cases in U.S. every year o 62 million cases globally every year o Treated with antibiotics (curable) o However: some antibiotic- resistant strains have been discovered - Syphilis (bacteria): o Rarer in developed countries like U.S. o Common symptoms = ulcers or lesions on outer sexual organs or even on cervix, rash, fever, pregnancy complications, neurological symptoms, & even death o Some people show no symptoms at all o Treated with antibiotics (curable) - Chlamydia (bacteria): o Common symptoms = fever, painful urination, burning, & discharge in both males & females o Can = infertility in women if untreated for long o Some men & ~70% of women show no symptoms at all: “Silent Epidemic” o Most common bacterial STD: 2.8 million new cases in the U.S. every year o Treated with antibiotics (curable) o Can spread from genitals to cause eye infections & even blindness - HIV/AIDS
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