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ECOSYSTEM BASED MANAGEMENTThe planetary boundary is a well know and recognized aspect of environmental sustainability. A larger model should be created by researching how the nine planetary boundaries interact with each other. The idea of Planetary Boundaries is a provocative expansion of social-natural frameworks considering, a methodology that recognizes that one issue alone - regardless of whether it is environmental change, sea fermentation, or biodiversity misfortune - can't be overseen in confinement. (Kahiluoto, 2019).One of the elements of EBM is ecological boundaries which create problems if not addressed. The environment should be viewed as ecological boundaries rather than political boundaries which are point mark the borders of a nation. With more research, ecological boundaries can be created, and well-established rules for creating the same should be formulated.As a matter of importance, the interaction of various boundaries should be considered.Ontario Ecosystem-Based Management AdoptionOntario is a Canadian province in east-central Canada and borders both the Great Lakes and the U.S. It has established a comprehensive forest management planning systems in Canada over the last two decades. The province has been integrating an EBM approach within its governing systems and provincial policy. The commitments made in the policy system for sustainable forest management are embedded in law under the Crown Forest Sustainability Act of 1994 with the goal of maintaining a long-term healthy forest(“Law Document English View,” 2014). In recent years, Ontario has made great efforts in their introduction of consolidated forest management planning guides. These guides provide instructions for the implementation of EBM as defined in Ontario at the landscape and site levels.7
ECOSYSTEM BASED MANAGEMENTIn the legislation of Crown Forest Sustainability Act of 1994, Ontario has integrated ecological, social, and economic goals within its regulatory policy. Human activities such as logging and recreational undertakings have also been well addressed. One principle included in the law states that forest practices should only be done with the limits of “Silvicultural requirements”, and should follow landscape patterns and natural disturbances and at the same time minimize hostile effects on soil, water, air, plant and animal life, social and economic valuesincluding heritage values and recreational values.In 1996, Ontario applied Landscape approach to EBM in forest management sustainability plans for tree species composition and age class structuring. Eight years later, the Natural Disturbance Pattern Emulation Guide (NDPEG) established tree retention guidelines and cut block size distributions which were based upon natural pattern simulation research studies.