Energy and Matter Life requires transfer and energy of matter o One way flow of

Energy and matter life requires transfer and energy

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Energy and Matter: Life requires transfer and energy of matter o One way flow of energy in ecosystem Interactions: From molecules to ecosystems, interactions are important in biological systems o Interactions between components of living organisms are essential to smooth operation o Feedback regulation: the product of process regulates the very product Most common form of regulation is negative feedback, in which response reduces initial stimulus Glucose and insulin, sugar level control Least common form of regulation is positive feedback, in which an influence on the process amplifies an effect Child birth, oxytocin intensifies and speeds up contractions o Organisms interact continuously with the environment Human interaction with the environment has increased CO2 levels in the environment, causing climate change (Concept 1.2) Evolution : Is the idea that organisms change gradually overtime o Classifying life into 3 domains Bacteria (Prokaryote) Archaea (Prokaryote) Eukarya (Eukaryote) o Eukarya holds 3 kingdoms and protists o Protein synthesis is present in all organisms o Present evidence (DNA) that there is unity in the diversity of life DNA is the universal genetic language o Charles Darwin & Natural Selection Species showed evidence of “descent with modifications” from common ancestors Natural selection is the mechanism behind evolution Explained duality of unity and diversity Organisms change in response to the environment Most likely to be better adapted to the environment are more likely to survive, allowing to pass on their genes o Process called “Natural Selection” Concept 1.3 : In studying nature, scientists make observations and form and test hypothesis Concept 1.4 : Science benefits from a cooperative approach and diverse view points Chapter 2 A Chemical Connection to Biology Biology is the study of life Organisms and their environments are subject to basic laws of physics and chemistry Concept 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds o Organisms are composed of matter o Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass Elements and Compounds o Matter is made up of elements o An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
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o A compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio o A compound has characteristics different from those of its elements The Elements of Life o About 20–25% of the 92 elements are essential to life (essential elements) o Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96% of living matter o Most of the remaining 4% consists of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur o Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities Concept 2.2 : An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms Each element consists of unique atoms o An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
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