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Framing will thus influence how a problem is understood, the means and strategies that are considered, the analyses and tools that are chosen, etc.” (p.218). I understand frames as a momentary product of the ongoing process of framing, undertaken by multiple actors and drawing on durable but dynamic concepts and structures. My distinction between frames and framing is somewhat artificial, but it allows for a simplified illustration of scale in issue frames.9898
Little Rock Central 2012-2013Complexity Theory KritikK. ChakkaRacismAddressing issues of race must address issues of complexity or policy options will face chaosWagenaar 07Hendrik Wagenaar, Leiden University, the Netherlands, Officials Harness the Complexities of Neighborhood Decline, Governance, Complexity, and Democratic Participation : How Citizens and Public Officials Harness the Complexities of Neighborhood Decline, The American Review of Public Administration, Feb 2, 2007Local preferencesof individual citizens, such as the desire to have ethnically similar neighbors or to be friends with someone from one’s own socioeconomic stratum, can lead to a society that is massively segregated along lines of income and ethnic background(Urry, 2003). 8 Neighborhoods and societies thus exhibit the properties of complex systems. If we translate this insight about complex systems to public policy, it has momentous implications. It basically means that the usual strategy of bringing expert knowledge to bear on policy situations is flawed, or at the very least of limited value. Because expert knowledge is primarily aimed at the understanding(and alleged control) of the separate parts of the system(e.g., members of ethnic minorities, food suppliers, school dropouts, employers, etc.), it threatens to miss the emergent properties of the system entirely. 9 Policy outcomes are an emergent property of complex social networks. Second, the transitions of a system from one state to another are not necessarily continuous but can, in fact, be quite abrupt. That is, certain, sometimeseven small, changes in the knowledge and information that flows through the connections in some part of the system can suddenly “flip” the system into a state of order or chaos(Kaufman, 1995, p. 78). Again, in policy terms, this is not a far-fetched idea. For example, it has long been documented that the steady inflow of low-income immigrants into an inner-city neighborhood, may, when a certain threshold level is reached, flip the once orderly neighborhood into a self-sustaining negative spiral of crime and urban decay (Wilson, 1978). Abrupt phase transitions point toward the dynamics of system complexity. Interactions in a system tend to be nonlinear, meaning that changesin the separate elements of a system because of information that flows through the system do not add up in a simple additive manner.