negative health issues and are not as widely used. Explain in simple molecular terms what would have to be done to a plant oil to transform it to a trans fat.Saturated Fatty AcidUnsaturated Fatty Acid
Biochemistry Basics 6 Why? Typically chemistry is a prerequisite course for advanced biology courses. This is because everything in your body, everything in a plant, everything in a virus, etc. is made of atoms. The structures and properties of the molecules in an organism determine the features and properties of the organism. Which molecules are polar, which are nonpolar? Which molecules have acidic properties, which have basic prop-erties? A quick review of these concepts at the beginning of your advanced biology course will help you to understand the molecular basis for life.Model 3– Molecular DrawingsBall-and-stick model of 1-pentanolLewis structure of 1-pentanolCHHHHHHHHHCHHCCCOHLine drawing of 1-pentanolOHH3CBall-and-stick model of glucoseLewis structure of glucoseOCCCCCCHHOHHHHHOHHOHOHHOLine drawing of glucoseHOOHOHOHOHOBall-and-stick model of unsaturated fatty acidLewis structure of unsaturated fatty acidCCHCHHCOHHHHHHHHHHHHCHHCHHHHHHHHOHCCCCCCCCLine drawing of unsaturated fatty acidOOHCH31.Name the three molecules that are illustrated in Model 32.Name the three types of drawings that are used to illustrate the molecules in Model 3 . .
7 POGIL ™ Activities for AP* Biology 3. How many bonds are typically formed by each of the following atoms:Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen4.Which types of drawings in Model 3provide more accurate images of the shape of amolecule?Justify your reasoning.5.Refer to Model 3a.Symbols or atoms of what element(s) are missing from the line drawings?b.In reading a line drawing, how do you know where atoms of these elements are in thestruc-ture if they are missing from the drawing?6.Locate the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the line drawing of isoleucine shown below and drawthem in as if the drawing were a Lewis structure. . O Isoleucine NH 2 CH 3 H 3 C OH 7. Isopropyl alcohol is a three-carbon molecule with an –OH group attached to the middle carbonatom. Draw this molecule using all three types of drawings.8.If you were asked to write the chemical formula for one of the compounds in Model 3, whichtype of the drawing would be the easiest to use? Justify your reasoning.9.What is the advantage to a scientist in using a line drawing rather than a ball-and-stick model orLewis structure?
Biochemistry Basics 8 Model 4 – Properties of Biological Molecules Polar Molecules (hydrophilic) Nonpolar Molecules (hydrophobic) Acidic O OH H 3 C OH Lactic acid Acidic O H 3 C OH Fatty acid Neutral O NH 2 H 3 C OH CH 3 Valine (amino acid) OH H H OH HO H H H OH OH O Glucose OH H H OH O H H OH OH H O OH H H OH H H HO OH H O Lactose Neutral H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 HO Cholesterol OH CH 3 CH 3 C H 3 CH 3 CH 3 Vitamin A OH CH 3 CH 3 O Testosterone Basic N HO HO OH CH 3 H Adrenaline NH 2 HO HO Dopamine N N NH N NH 2 Adenine
9 POGIL ™ Activities for AP* Biology
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