Self Actualization The process of exploring and fulfilling one's potential—not only by staying alive but also by testing and fulfilling their vision of their highest capabilities. Transference refers to redirection of a patient's feelings for a significant person to the therapist. When Freud initially encountered transference in his therapy with patients, he felt it was an obstacle to treatment success. But what he learned was that the analysis of the transference was actually the work that needed to be done. The focus in psychodynamic psychotherapy is, in large part, the therapist and patient recognizing the transference relationship and exploring what the meaning of the relationship is. Because the transference between patient and therapist happens on an unconscious level, psychodynamic therapists who are largely concerned with a patient's unconscious material use the transference to reveal unresolved conflicts patients have with figures from their childhoods. Countertransference is defined as redirection of a therapist's feelings toward a patient, or more generally as a therapist's emotional entanglement with a patient. A therapist's attunement to their own countertransference is nearly as critical as understanding the transference. Not only does this help the therapist regulate their emotions in the therapeutic relationship, but it also gives the therapist valuable insight into what the patient is attempting to elicit in them. Once it has been identified, the therapist can ask the patient what their feelings are toward the therapist, and explore how they relate to unconscious motivations, desires, or fears. Structuralism in psychology refers to the theory founded by Edward B. Titchener , with the goal to describe the structure of the mind in terms of the most primitive elements of mental experience . This theory focused on three things: the individual elements of consciousness , how they organized into more complex experiences, and how these mental phenomena correlated with physical events. The mental elements structure themselves in such a way to allow conscious experience. Trait-Factor Theory : The Trait-Factor theory of career development goes as far back as the early 1900’s and is associated mostly strongly with vocational theorists Frank Parsons and E.G. Williamson. Some of the basic assumptions that underlie this theory are: • Every person has a unique pattern of traits made up of their interests, values, abilities and personality characteristics, these traits can be objectively identified and profiled to represent an individual’s potential • Every occupation is made up of factors required for the successful performance of that occupation. These factors can be objectively identified and represented as an occupational profile.
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