NE102 Lecture Notes 3

Neurotransmission aka synaptic transmission between

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Neurotransmission (aka synaptic transmission) between neurons takes place via  extracellular signaling molecules.  Cell signal to each other through various distance from one another. 
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Cell Signaling pt. 2 18:04 OVERRIDING QUESTIONS: What are the “extracellular signaling molecules”? How do they control (or illicit changes in) cell behavior? QUESTION: What are extracellular signaling molecules? Extracellular signaling molecules are a means of communication between cells Extracellular signals sent by one cell modulate the behavior of target cells Table 16-1 in textbook Extracellular signaling molecules are often grouped based on their “mode of action” at  the plasma membrane of target cells. Some cross directly through the plasma membrane: Steroid hormones – hydrophobic, can go through membrane Most are NOT able to cross directly through the plasma membrane: Neurotransmitters Peptide growth factors QUESTION: How can this group of signaling molecules illicit changes in cell behavior? Many steroid hormones affect cell behavior via allosteric regulation of transcription  factors. (in nucleus) Well-characterized example of nuclear receptor: Glucocorticoid = steroid hormone produced & released by the adrenal cortex
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Cell Signaling pt. 2 18:04 Once released, glucocorticoid regulates gene expression in target cells NO and CO also affect cell behavior via allosteric regulation of proteins (usually regulate  metabolic enzymes) QUESTION: How can polar signaling molecules illicit changes in cell behavior? ALL BIND TO CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS QUESTION: How does binding to cell surface receptors modulate cell behavior? Receptor activation – triggers a cascade of events inside of the cell – alters/modulates  cell behavior Many different classes of cell surface receptors Ligand-gated ion channels G protein-couple receptors Receptor protein-tryosine kinases LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNELS Cells have membrane-embedded proteins that function to transport large and/or charge  molecules across membranes KEY: Open and closed states are regulated by ligand binding Binding of acetylcholine opens the receptor channel – ion flux across the membrane Neurotransmitter receptors = the predominant type of ligand-gated ion channels G PROTEIN-COUPLE RECEPTORS Largest receptor family with nearly 1000 members Includes receptors for Each family member has specificity for:
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Cell Signaling pt. 2 18:04 (1) particular ligand(s) (2) the intracellular cascade they trigger G protein-couple receptors have a common structure and mechanism of activation. Common structure
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Neurotransmission aka synaptic transmission between neurons...

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