NE102 Lecture Notes 3

Neurotransmission aka synaptic transmission between

Info icon This preview shows pages 3–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Neurotransmission (aka synaptic transmission) between neurons takes place via  extracellular signaling molecules.  Cell signal to each other through various distance from one another. 
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cell Signaling pt. 2 18:04 OVERRIDING QUESTIONS: What are the “extracellular signaling molecules”? How do they control (or illicit changes in) cell behavior? QUESTION: What are extracellular signaling molecules? Extracellular signaling molecules are a means of communication between cells Extracellular signals sent by one cell modulate the behavior of target cells Table 16-1 in textbook Extracellular signaling molecules are often grouped based on their “mode of action” at  the plasma membrane of target cells. Some cross directly through the plasma membrane: Steroid hormones – hydrophobic, can go through membrane Nitric oxide (NO) & carbon monoxide (CO) – gases Most are NOT able to cross directly through the plasma membrane: Neurotransmitters Peptide growth factors QUESTION: How can this group of signaling molecules illicit changes in cell behavior? Many steroid hormones affect cell behavior via allosteric regulation of transcription  factors. (in nucleus) Well-characterized example of nuclear receptor: Glucocorticoid & the Glucocorticoid Receptor Glucocorticoid = steroid hormone produced & released by the adrenal cortex
Image of page 4
Cell Signaling pt. 2 18:04 Once released, glucocorticoid regulates gene expression in target cells NO and CO also affect cell behavior via allosteric regulation of proteins (usually regulate  metabolic enzymes) QUESTION: How can polar signaling molecules illicit changes in cell behavior? ALL BIND TO CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS QUESTION: How does binding to cell surface receptors modulate cell behavior? Receptor activation – triggers a cascade of events inside of the cell – alters/modulates  cell behavior Many different classes of cell surface receptors Ligand-gated ion channels G protein-couple receptors Receptor protein-tryosine kinases LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNELS Cells have membrane-embedded proteins that function to transport large and/or charge  molecules across membranes KEY: Open and closed states are regulated by ligand binding Binding of acetylcholine opens the receptor channel – ion flux across the membrane Neurotransmitter receptors = the predominant type of ligand-gated ion channels G PROTEIN-COUPLE RECEPTORS Largest receptor family with nearly 1000 members Includes receptors for Neurotransmitters, growth factors, non-steroid hormones, smell, sight & taste receptors Each family member has specificity for:
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cell Signaling pt. 2 18:04 (1) particular ligand(s) (2) the intracellular cascade they trigger G protein-couple receptors have a common structure and mechanism of activation.
Image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern