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Images: Prokaryotic Cell : M. Ruiz, Other Images, Sources Unknown From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Prokaryotes - Glycocalyx Some bacteria have an additional layer outside of the cell wall called the glycocalyx . This additional layer can come in one of two forms: 1. ______________________ - Glycoproteins loosely associated with the cell wall. - Slime layer causes bacteria to adhere to solid surfaces and helps prevent the cell from drying out. - Streptococcus The slime layer of Gram+ Streptococcus mutans allows it to accumulate on tooth enamel (yuck mouth and one of the causes of cavities). Other bacteria in the mouth become trapped in the slime and form a biofilm & eventually a buildup of plaque. Images: Slime layer , Encyclopedia Britannica; Biofilm, PHIL # 11706, Mannitol Salt agar , T. Port Mannitol Salt From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Prokaryotes - Glycocalyx 2. ___________________ Polysaccharides firmly attached to the cell wall. Capsules adhere to solid surfaces and to nutrients in the environment. Adhesive power of capsules is a major factor in the initiation of some bacterial diseases. Capsule also protect bacteria from being phagocitized by cells of the hosts immune system. Image: Prokaryotic Cell Diagram : M. Ruiz, Other Images Unknown Source From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Virtual Microbiology Classroom on
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Prokaryotes - Endospores Dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by small number of bacteria. Q: What is the function of endospores? Resistant to radiation, desiccation, lysozyme, temperature, starvation, and chemical disinfectants. Endospores are commonly found in soil and water, where they may survive for very long periods of time. Image: Bacillus subtilis , SPO Science Image Library, Endospore stain from Dr. Ronald E. Hurlbert, Microbiology 101 lab manual From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com An endospore stained bacterial smear of Bacillus subtilis showing endospores as green and vegetative cells as red.
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Meet the Microbe: _______________ (Gram+) The members of this genus have a couple of bacterial “superpowers” that make them particularly tough pathogens. Q: Anyone know what those superpowers are? Clostridia are known to produce a variety of toxins, some of which are fatal. - Clostridium tetani = agent of tetanus - C. botulinum = agent of botulism - C. perfringens = one of the agents of gas gangrene - C. difficile = part of natural intestinal flora, but resistant strains can proliferate and cause pseudomembranous colitis. Images: Man with Tetanus , Sir Charles Bell; Clostridium botulinum, PHIL #2107; Wet Gangrene , Wiki From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Prokaryotes – Surface Appendages Some prokaryotes have distinct appendages that allow them to move about or adhere to solid surfaces.
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