G.The Kansas-Nebraska Act7.Unlike the lands taken from Mexico, Kansas and Nebraska lay in the nation’s heartland, directly in the path of westward migration. Originally, slavery was prohibited in Kansas and Nebraska through the Missouri Compromise but when Douglas posed the question of popular sovereignty and the south took Douglas up on the offer so slavery was reinstated back in the area. In response to Douglas’s proposal, a group of anti-slavery congressmen issued the Appeal of the Independent Democrats. This pamphlet was written by Joshua Giddings and Senator Salmon P. Chase. This pamphlet helped to convince millions of northerners that southern leaders aimed at nothing less than extending their peculiar institution through the west. Although this pamphlet enlightened citizens across the US, the Kansas-Nebraska Act became law and it shattered the Democratic Party’s unity. Protest meetings sprang up throughout the North and fearing that the bill’s unpopularity among their constituents would harm their chances for reelection, half the northern Democrats in the House cast negative votes. In the wake of the bill’s passage, American politics underwent a profound reorganization and during the next 2 years, the Whig party was unable to develop a unified response to the political crisis, so it collapsed. l)Now, the South was primarily democratic and in the North, the Whig party grew due to half of the Democrats who opposed Douglas’ Act formed the Republican party: dedicated to preventing the further expansion of slaveryIII.The Rise of the Republican Party A.The Northern Economy 1.The period from 1843 to 1857 witnessed explosive economic growth, especially in the North and the catalyst was the completion of the railroad network. The economic integration of the Northwest and Northeast created the groundwork for their political unification in the Republican Party. The areas of industrial production: The first one stretched from Boston to Philadelphia and Baltimore and a second was centered on or near the Great Lakes, in cities like Buffalo, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and
Chicago. Fun fact: Chicago was the Old Northwest’s major rail center and this provided passengers aboard the train to jump off and head for the Great Plains and Chicago had become a complex manufacturing center, producing reapers, barbed wire, windmills, prefabricated houses; all of these developments which were createdin Chicago had facilitated further western settlement. m)New York City by 1860 had become the nation’s preeminent financial, commercial, manufacturing center. IMPORTANT: SOUTH DID NOT HAVE AS MANY ECONOMIC CHANGES AS THE NORTHB.The Rise and fall of the Know-Nothings 2.Nativism (hostility to immigrants and especially Catholics) emerged as a local political movement in the 1840’s. The Know-Nothing Party reserved the political office for native-born Americans and they resisted the aggressions of the Catholic church; the Catholic church undermined public education and the Know-Nothing Party was against that.