Takes away from the child’s individuality Suggest that there is something wrong with the childLabels have permanence Basis for keeping children out of the regular classroom
Requires great expenditure that might be better spend on planning and delivering instruction Why Are Laws Governing the Education of Exceptional Children Necessary?An Exclusionary PastChildren who are different have often been denied full and fair access to educational opportunitiesSeparate is Not EqualSpecial education was strongly influences by social developments and court decisions in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. Brown vs. Board of Education)Equal ProtectionAll children are entitled to a free, appropriate public education1954: Brown vs. Board of Education1964: Civil Rights Act1972: PARC vs. Commonwealth of PA-Landmark Disability case1975: Education of the Handicapped Act (IDEA)The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)Six major principles of IDEA1.Zero Reject: Schools must educate all children with disabilities2.Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation: Schools must used nonbiased, multi-factored methods of evaluation3.Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): An IEP must be developed for each child4.Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): Must educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate5.Due Process Safeguards: Parents’ and children’s rights protected
6.Shared Decision Making: Schools must collaborate with parentsOther provisions of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)Extending special education services preschoolersBeginning with the 1990-91 school year, required each state fully serve allpreschool children with disabilities, ages 3-5Early intervention for infants and toddlersIncentive grant program to encourage states to provide early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families (IFSP-Individualized Family Service Plan)Related services and assistive technologyIEP team must consider whether assistive technology is necessary in order for a child to receive FAPE. (alternative and augmentative communication devices, low-vision aids, positioning and mobility devices, and adaptive toys and games.Scientifically based instructionSpecial ed. And related services prescribed in the IEP must be “based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable”.