The production processes textile world 2015 in 2009

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the production processes (Textile World 2015 ). In 2009, synthetic fi bers account for approximately 65 % of total global fi ber production, while natural fi bers take up 35 % and over 70 % of synthetic fi bers are made from polyester 24 K.E. Lee
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(Teonline 2009 ). Through the continuous growth in the textile market, in 2014, total global demands were 55.2 million tons in synthetic fi bers, 5.2 million tons in man-made cellulosic fi bers, and 25.4 million tons in natural fi ber (Textile World 2015 ). Synthetic fi ber Among the synthetic fi ber category, nylon, polyester, acrylic, latex, and PVC are major materials that are used in the textile industry. In 1892, the initial invention of MMF was an arti fi cial silk made with cellulosic in France. Based on the textile companies continuous efforts to develop other cellulosic materials, in the 1930s, nylon, the oldest MMF, was invented and successfully commercialized by DuPont. Nylon is a polyamide made from petroleum taking one of the greatest greenhouse gas inventors (Rydell 2001 ). During World War II, nylon was mainly used by the military, and later, it replaced silk in the manufacture of women s hosiery. In 2014, 4 million tons of nylon was produced globally and consumed mostly in Asia and the USA (52 % in Asia and 20 % in the USA) (Textile World 2015 ). In the textile industry, carpet is one of the largest business sectors consuming approxi- mately 17.5 % of total global usage. For apparels, nylon is being used to produce lingerie, sheer hosiery, and swimwear (Textile World 2015 ). Nylon production emits nitrous oxide, one of the major components of greenhouse gas destroying the ozone layer and 310 times more harmful than carbon dioxide (another green- house gas composition) (Greenchoices N.D.). Considering the annual amount of global nylon production, nylon s harmful environmental impacts are signi fi cant. In the early 1940s, polyester was developed by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in England. Polyester is a polymer made from coal, water, air, and petroleum products, and major greenhouse gas emitters (Ma l gorzata et al. 2003 ; Rydell 2001 ). As polyester started partially replacing the demand for nylon, in 1980, global polyester needs were at 5.2 million tons, and by 2000, it had exceeded 19.2 million tons. In 2014, 46.1 million tons of polyester was needed, occupying about 73 % of the total synthetic fi ber demand at 55.2 million tons (Textile World 2015 ). From production to disposal, one polyester T-shirt emits 5.5 kg of CO 2 , the same degree of carbon footprint as using 0.6 gallons of gas, burning 5.9 lb of coal, or driving a sedan for 13 miles (see Fig. 1 ). Currently, the textile industry accounts for approximately 80 % of polyester production, which creates over 706 million tons of greenhouse gas; this is equal to Fig. 1 Greenhouse gas impacts throughout the life cycle of one polyester T-shirt (Kirchain et al.
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