that dude who did a geological survey in the black hills b Studies were done on

That dude who did a geological survey in the black

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Ie. that dude who did a geological survey in the black hills b.Studies were done on waterways, useful minerals, etc c.Helped pave the way of private mining companies, ranchers, etc. iii.West becomes a place where ppl think they can strike their rich b.Bonanza Farms i.A place where ppl thought they could make their fortune ii.Hard b/c the land was more arid than in the south and there were common droughts iii.Bonanza farms were large scale, commercial farms that relied on efficient new machinery and cheap irrigation systems 1.Tended to rely on wheat 2.Often had a series of managers to oversee operations iv.Farm had to have a minimum of 3000 acres to qualify as a bonanza 1.Largest of all was one that was over 70,000 acres 2.Required entire fleets of equipment cuz of the scale v.To meet this demand, an entire business of machine manufacturing develops
vi.Unfortunately it depleted the soil and nutrients 1.Competed with other foreign wheat growers which drove down the price in the foreign market 2.By 1920, bonanza farms are very rare. Failed because of global competition, droughts, and soil/nutrient depletion c.Mining/Ghost towns i.Mining booms and busts with an even shorter lifespan than agriculture 1.It moves east from sf, into the dakotas, idaho, etc. ii.Prospectors come into california during the gold rush iii.Waves of miners would flood areas that had gold 1.Small towns sprang up quickly once mines were discovered and would die out once the miners moved on iv.Prospectors mainly used placer mining - used picks and pans to extract and minerals they were looking for 1.Diverse miners 2.Could only extract whatever was on the surface 3.Heavy machinery was needed when the top layer was tapped d.Comstock Lode i.Commercial mining ii.In nevada, one of the largest gold stocks was found iii.Discovery produced immediate mining towns iv.Sf and nevada both see a bump in their populations v.Major enterprises soon move in and buy the land rights 1.Bank of california lends money at lower rates than other banks, betting that the ppl will run out of money quickly. When they ran out, the bank would come in and take the land that the miners had in comstock 2.Then builds the virginia and truckee railroad a.Drastically decreases transportation costs and allows for vertical integration vi.Once big businesses came in, independent miners could leave and go somewhere else or accept wage positions vii.Ore deposits down deep required heavy machinery 1.Phillip Deidesheimer created the square set timber method to get ppl down into the mines 2.Miners still faced potentially toxic air, heavy heat, bad working conditions 3.Mid 1870s - virginia city becomes an industrial hub and has 25,000 ppl and is one of the largest cities after sf and la a.Women had a significant presence - many churches, schools, etc b.But once the silver diminished, it too became a ghost town
viii.1880-1900, ppl lost a third of its population because gold/silver left. The state became a ghost town ix.Prostitution and gambling was common in these towns e.Cowboys i.

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