Anterior lobe the anterior or front lobe of the

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Anterior lobe. The anterior, or front, lobe of the pituitary gland produces six hormones. Somatotropic, or growth, hormone stimulates normal body growth and development by altering chemical activity in body cells. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the thyroid gland to produce hormones. Adrenocorticotropic (uh-DREE-noh-kawr-ti-koh-TROH-pik) hormone (ACTH) stimulates production of hormones in the adrenal glands. pituitary gland T HE E NDOCRINE S YSTEM The glands of the endocrine system are located throughout the body. Each gland has at least one particular function. Thyroid The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth. The thyroid produces thyroxine, which regulates the way cells release energy from nutrients. Parathyroid Glands The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that regulates the body’s calcium and phosphorus balance. Testes The testes are the male reproductive glands. Ovaries The ovaries are the female reproductive glands. Besides playing a role in repro- duction (as described in Lessons 2 and 3), the testes and ovaries control the development of secondary sex characteristics during puberty. Hypothalamus The hypothalamus links the endocrine system with the nervous system and stimu- lates the pituitary gland to secrete hormones. Pineal Gland This gland secretes melatonin, which regulates sleep cycles and is thought to affect the onset of puberty. Pituitary Gland The pituitary regulates and controls activities of other endocrine glands. Thymus Gland The thymus regulates development of the immune system. Adrenal Glands These glands produce hormones that regulate the body’s salt and water balance. Secretions from the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla control the body’s emergency response. Pancreas The pancreas is a gland that serves both the digestive and the endocrine systems. As an endocrine gland, the pancreas secretes two hor- mones that regulate the level of glucose in the blood—glucagon and insulin.
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Two hormones that stimulate production of all other sex hormones are secreted by the pituitary’s anterior lobe during adolescence. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) control the growth, development, and functions of the , another name for the ovaries and testes. In females FSH stimulates cells in the ovaries to produce estro- gen, a female sex hormone that triggers the development of ova. LH is responsible for ovulation and stimulates ovarian cells to produce progesterone. The hormone prolactin stimu- lates milk production in females who have given birth. In males LH stimulates cells in the testes to produce the male hormone testosterone. FSH controls the production of sperm. Intermediate lobe. The intermediate, or middle, lobe of the pituitary secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which controls the darkening of the skin by stimulating skin pigments.
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