Delocalization of pi electrons make ring behave

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delocalization of pi electrons make ring behave differently from a typical unsaturated  hydrocarbon substitution reactions in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by other atoms saturated hydrocarbons addition reactions are characteristic of unsaturated ones phenyl group when benzene is a subsitituent 21.4 hydrocarbon derivatives molecules that are fundamentally hydrocarbons but have additional atoms or groups of  atoms called functional groups functional group alcohol presence of hydroxyl group replace final –e of parent hydrocarbon and change it to –ol
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03:14 higher boiling point because of types of intermolecular attractions that occur in ligands phenol- most simplest aromatic alcohol alhedydes and ketones all contain carbonyl group >C=O ketones are R-C(=O)-R endings change from –e to -one aldehydes are H-C(=O)-H bonded to hydrogen endings change from –e to –al carboxylic acids and esters presence of carboxyl group –C(=O)-O(-H) formula of RCOOH amines derivates of ammonia in which one or more N-H bonds are replaced by N-C bonds primary if one N-C secondary if two N-C 21.5 polymers large chain like molecules built from small molecules called monomers synthesis for fibers, rubbers, plastics, etc thermoset polymer
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03:14 first completely synthetic plastic, when molded into certain shape under high pressure  and temp cannot be softened again or dissolved thermoplastic polymer cellulose nitrate and can be remelted after it has been molded crosslinkings adds strength to polymers, exsistence of covalent bonds between adjacent chains vulcanization- added rubber to sulfer and heated, became reversible eleastic and strong types polyethylene tough fexible plastic used for piping, insulation, films, etc Teflon Nonstick, nonflammable, inert, and tough Addition polymerization- monomers add together to produce a polymer Free radical- a species with an unpaired electrons Condensation polymerization- small molecule is formed for each extension of the  polymer chain Copolymer- two different types of monomers combine to form the chain Homopolymer- result of polymerizing a single type of monomer Dimmer- two monomers joined which can undergo further condensation reactions since  it has an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other Psi- pounds per square inch: 15 psi= 1 atm Isotactic chain- CH3 groups that can be arranged on same side of the chain Syndiotactic chain- CH3 groups that can alternate Atactic chains- CH3 that can be randomly distributed
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03:14 Polystyrene Tough and used as a substitute for wood in furniture Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)- high volume polymer constructed from monomer vinyl chloride 21.6 natural polymers proteins
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