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Nixon recognizes the arms race has plateaued The USSR had caught up to the USA while the USA was bogged down in Vietnam by 1969 the two superpowers have reach a rough equalityNixon’s goal: Limit arms race and help arrange an “honorable” exit from Vietnamknew they weren’t winning the war1969-Negotionation with the US and USSR begin on Strategic Arms oboth sides have a strategic triadThe Inter Continental (long range) bomberICBMSubmarine launched ballistic missile (Poseidon and Trident)MIRV’sStrategic arms negotiation talks beginThe Moscow Summit (Nixon is first president since FDR to visit USSR in 1972 Great Photo opStrategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) Which limits the number of missiles each side can haveAnti Ballistic missile treaty defense systemNixon Ousted! Ford Takes oath on August 1974Ford Continues arms control talks and goes to RussiaSALT II which includes bombers and MIRVsThis is the high point of détenteThe Helsinki Conference (1975)There had been no peace treaty at the end of WW2 and the Russians pressed for a peace conferences to establish formal bordersKissinger, Ford, Breshnev and GymkoThe Helsinki final actBasket 1: All signatories recognize the Post WW2 borders in Europemajor win for the USSRBasket 2: promised cooperation in trade and cultural exchangeBasket 3: Guaranteed respect for fundamental human rights of populations and a mechanism for monitoring major win for USA leads to issues in EuropePresident Cater 1977Pledges to promote better human rights throughout the world and better relations w/ the USSR 1979 SALT II formally adopted
Breshnev and Cater “kiss”Right win critics war of “present danger”The End of Détente1975-1980Soviet-US rivalry in AfricaSoviet Intermediate range missile in EuropeSoviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)Carter: “Moscow Nyet” March 21, 1980oOrder Olympic Athletes not to attend Moscow OlympicsoOrder Blockade on USSR March 25: Lecture 17: 2ndIndochina War (notes 1)°I. The Aftermath of the French withdrawl°II. The Deepening American political involvement under Eisenhower°III. The engagement of American military power under Kennedy°IV. The escalation of War under Johnson°V. Domestic opposition and American Disengagement°VI. The Unification of the two Vietnams March 25: Lecture 17: 2ndIndochina War (notes 2)Vietnam divided 1954All Vietnam elections were to be held in 1956 for reunification. This was supposed to be a temporary division. North Vietnam’s leader: Ho Chi Minh. He was aided by China and the USSRSouth Vietnam’s leader: Jean Baptiste Ngo-Dinh Diem: anti-communist: the US backs Diem’s regimeDiem cancels elections for reunification when it became clear that Ho Chi Minh would win the planned elections in 1956. Tensions mounted and Ho Chi Minh urged Vietminh fighters and sympathizers in the south to rise up against the government.