rather than actively forming and testing hypotheses they are unconsciously

Rather than actively forming and testing hypotheses

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rather than actively forming and testing hypotheses, they are unconsciously abstracting info o largely tacit knowledge – they know it without being able to say it o evident in how you learn your mother tongue vs. other languages later on - Cognitive unconscious hypothesis: implicit learning represents an evolutionary primitive form of unconscious cognition o Explicit knowledge like academic intelligence – is recent o IQ tests test explicit knowledge - Explicit cognitive abilities would predict performance on a task requiring explicit congition but not performance on a task requiring implicit cognition Wittgenstein’s Analysis of Concepts: - Family resemblance: instances of concepts that possess overlapping features without any features being common to all o Complicated network Prototype Theories (Rosch) - Concepts are represented by a summary representation – a prototype o Instances can be more or less similar to prototype o Categorization depends on reaching some criterion level of similarity to prototype o Can explain borderline cases and typicality - Prototypical objects affected more by priming
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- The prototype effect: subjects better remember unseen prototypes than seen or unseen exemplars (?) - Exemplar theories - Cognitive economy – constant attempts to balance tendency for simplification and the necessity for differentiation o One of these tendencies is to use our categories to maximize the amount of information they give us Having as many categories as possible More categories = more distinctions between events Logically, this would lead to a separate category for every event and that would mean no categories at all o Categories reduces the amount of information that we have to deal with We want to discriminate between events but also be able to group them together People try to make concepts as simple as possible Promote simplicity by ignoring differences and focusing on similarities o Ex of cognitive economy – stereotyping - Perceived world structure – some combinations of attributes tend to occur more frequently than other combination ( Correlated attributes hypothesis) o Ex. Wings usually come with feathers rather than fur o Bruner cards do not have correlated attributes - Attribute relations differ between the real world & the lab o In the real world – concepts’ attributes cluster (are correlated) Eg. an animal with fur is unlikely to also have feathers o In the lab – ‘artificial’ concepts have non-correlated attributes Vertical and Horizontal dimensions - Vertical dimension: refers to the level of inclusiveness of the category o Superordinate level – eg. furniture o Basic level – eg. chair o Subordinate level – eg. kitchen chair o Children more accurately name basic-level categories before superordinate categories (eg. name ‘dog’ before learning animal or German shepherd) - Horizontal dimension: distinguishes between concepts at the same level of inclusiveness o
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