It tells us about the complexity of both the past and

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not essentialize new concepts like the non-West, the Global South or the subaltern. It tells us about the complexity of both the past and present worlds. It makes moral claims about the way in which the world functions today and how it could function tomorrow. Since differences and diversity are basic components of the human story, the global perspective shows that understanding and handling differences is an important moral skill. Claims, interpretations and evaluations cannot be made solely within the framework of our own known world; they must reflect the complexity of human history. With the global perspective, history strikes back. It integrates time and place, deals with interactions and the hierarchy of scales in the human world. This makes it a barrier against the threat of an undifferentiated multitude of new stories, and it advances the levels of ambition, time, place and themes, of questions and answers. Historicizing does not create a new, totalizing master-narrative, only a lack of historical knowledge can do that. A global perspective is, by definition, highly ambitious; it interrogates processes of 'world-making', of social change, in a broad time-space context. It compares, it connects, it incorporates, it systemizes. Global and World History deconstruct world-making processes and construct new world-making narratives. That is why the global perspective is inclusive. It includes outer worlds and outer times in our world; it includes 'us' in our narrative.
15 15 References Abbeloos, J.F. and Vanhaute, E. (2011). "Cutting the Gordian Knot of world history: Giovanni Arrighi’s model of the great divergence and convergence", Journal of World-Systems Research, 17, 1, pp. 89-106. Acemoglu, D. and Robinson J. (2012). Why Nations Fail. The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty, Crown Business. Arrighi, Giovanni (1994). The Long Twentieth Century: Money, power, and the origins of our times. New York, NY: Verso Books Arrighi, Giovanni (2004). " Spatial and Other “Fixes” of Historical Capitalism ", Journal of World-Systems Research, 10, 2, pp. 527-539. Arrighi, Giovanni (2007). Adam Smith in Beijing. Lineages of the Twenty-First Century. London: Verso. Arrighi, Giovanni (2010). "Postscript to the Second Edition", The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power and the Origins of Our Times, Verso, pp. 371-386 Arrighi, G. and Drangel, J. (1986). "The Stratification of the World-economy: An exploration of the semiperipheral zone", Review (Fernand Braudel Center), 10, 1, pp. 9-74. Arrighi, G., Silver, B. J. and Brewer, B. D. (2003). "Industrial Convergence, Globalization, and the Persistence of the North-South Divide", Studies in Comparative International Development (SCID), 38, 1, pp. 3-31. Austin, Gareth (2007). "Reciprocal Comparison and African History: Tackling Conceptual Eurocentrism in the Study of Africa’s Economic Past", African Studies Review, 50, pp 1-28. Babones, S. J. (2005). "The Country-Level Income Structure of the World-Economy", Journal of World- Systems Research, 11, 1, pp. 29-55.

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