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Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic: Max Weber (1864–1920) was another early sociologist who left a profound impression onsociology. He used cross-cultural and historical materials to trace the causes of socialchange and to determine how social groups affect people’s orientations to life.Max Webera German sociologist and a contemporary of Durkheim, also became a professor in the new academic discipline of sociology.Weber is one of the three most influential of all sociologists.Religion and the Origin of Capitalism:oHe wanted to uncover the origin of capitalism, which was transforming society.oHis conclusion was surprising: Changes in religion brought about capitalism.oRoman Catholicswere taught that because they were church members they were on the road to heaven. This encouraged them to hold on to traditional ways of life.oProtestants, in contrast, those of the Calvinist tradition, were told that they wouldn’t know if they were saved until Judgment Day.oThat financial success is a blessing from God. It indicates that God is on their side. As you can understand, this motivated them to bring about this “sign” and receive spiritual comfort. They began to live frugal lives, saving their money, and investing it in order to make even more. A surprising result of religious teaching, then, was the birth of capitalism, which transformed society.oWeber called this self-denying approach to life the Protestant ethic.oHe termed the desire to invest capital in order to make more money the spirit of capitalism.Sociology in North America:Sexism and Early Female Sociologist: As you may have noticed, all the sociologists we have discussed are men.In the 1800s, sex roles were rigid, with women assigned the roles of wife and mother.In the classic German phrase, women were expected to devote themselves to the fourK’s: 6