and hunting efficiency of the indigenous peoples of the American West and

And hunting efficiency of the indigenous peoples of

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and hunting efficiency of the indigenous peoples of the American West and slowed the pace of European settlement.Catholic missionaries, including the Jesuits, attempted to convert the Amerindian population of French America, but, meeting with indigenous resistance, they turned their attention to work in the French settlementsThese settlements, dependent on the fur trade, were small and grew slowlyThis pattern of settlement allowed Amerindians in French America to preserve a greater degree of independence than they could in the Spanish, Portuguese, or British colonies.The French expanded aggressively to the west and south, establishing a second fur-trading colony in Louisiana in 1699This expansion led to war with England in which the French, defeated in 1759, were forced to yield Canada to the English and to cede Louisiana to Spain.IV. Colonial Expansion and ConflictA. Imperial Reform in Spanish America and BrazilAfter 1713, Spain’s new Bourbon dynasty undertook a series of administrative reforms, including expanded intercolonial trade, new commercial monopolies on certain goods, a stronger navy, and better policing of the trade in contraband goods to the Spanish coloniesThese reforms coincided with the eighteenth-century economic expansion that was led by the agricultural and grazing economies of Cuba, the Rio de la Plata, Venezuela, Chile, and Central America.Threatened by the independence and power of Jesuit influence, both Portuguese and Spanish monarchies expelled them from their American colonies.The Bourbon policies were detrimental to the interests of the grazing and agricultural export economies, which were increasingly linked to illegitimate trade with the English, French, and DutchThe new monopolies aroused opposition from creole elites whose only gain from the reforms was their role as leaders of militias that were intended to counter the threat of war with England.The Bourbon policies were also a factor in the Amerindian uprisings, including the uprising led by the Peruvian Amerindian leader José Gabriel Condorcanqui (Tupac Amaru II)The rebellion was suppressed after more than two years and cost the Spanish colonies over 100,000 lives andenormous amounts of property damage.Brazil also underwent a period of economic expansion and administrative reform in the 1700s.Economic expansion fueled by gold, diamonds, coffee, and cotton underwrote the Pombal reforms, paid for the importation of nearly 2 million African slaves, and underwrote a new wave of British imports.B. Reform and Reorganization in British AmericaIn the latter half of the seventeenth century, the British Crown tried to control colonial trading (smuggling) and manufacture by passing a series of Navigation Acts and by suspending the elected assemblies of the NewEngland coloniesColonists resisted by overthrowing the governors of New York and Massachusetts and by removing the Catholic proprietor of Maryland, thus setting the stage for future confrontational politics.

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