11 In the mid 1990s Dreze and Sen had commented that in contrast with a more

11 in the mid 1990s dreze and sen had commented that

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11. In the mid-1990s, Dreze and Sen had commented that in contrast with a more equitable and participatory growth pattern in South Korea, 'India stands in some danger of going Brazil's way, rather than South Korea's'. a. They feel that there is a fair amount of unaimed opulence in India today. 12. On the other hand, Brazil has substantially changed course, and adopted a more inclusive approach based on active social policies. This change has been largely driven by the fourishing of democracy. 13. Notable aspects of this new orientation include 18 Downloaded by Vicky Gupta ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3929542
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a. a commitment free and universal health care, b. bold programmes of social security and income support, and c. eforts to expand the reach and quality of elementary education. 14.The right to health was included in the new democraticconstitution. It is aimed at providing free health care to everyonewithout discrimination, and also launched an ambitious Family HealthProgramme. a. The system involves both public and private health careb. It has led to a major expansion of access to health care,c.Brazil's health indicators are reasonably good., with, for instance, providers, but is publicly funded. particularly for the underprivileged — according to the World Health Organization, 75% of the population 'rely exclusively on it for their health care coverage'. universal immunization of children, an infant mortality rate of only 14 per 1,000 (compared with 47 in India), and only 2% children below fve being underweight (compared with a staggering 43%in India). 15.A special feature of Brazil's new health care project is that it isrooted in strong popular movements. Brazil's experience also remindsus that, in a democracy health care can be a lively political issue, as itis in the experience of Western Europe (and to some extent, morerecently, even of the United States). 16. Martin Ravallion (2011) compared the speed and causes of poverty reduction in Brazil, India and China between 1981 and 2005. During the 2 nd half of this period (between 1993 and 2005), Brazil's per capita GDP grew at just 1% or so, compared with nearly 5% in India. 19 Downloaded by Vicky Gupta ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3929542
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Yet the share of poverty reduction was much larger in Brazil, where this was also a period of substantial redistribution, in contrast with India where economic inequality went up. 17. The redistribution included various social assistance programmes (including large pension schemes), minimum wage policies, and, from 2003 onwards, the well-known Bolsa Família programme of targeted cash transfers, which covers about 25% of the population — mainly those outside the formal sectorof the economy. 18. Indeed, Brazil is still one of the most unequal countries in the world (along with India, China and South Africa). 19. Less well known than Bolsa Família or Fome Zero (Zero Hunger), Brazil's food security initiative), but no less important, is the sustained expansion and improvement of Brazil's schooling system during the last 20 years or so. attending private schools at the primary level (about 10%) is much smaller than in India (nearly 30%). reforms. For instance, municipalities have started assuming the main responsibility for school management; a 'funding equalization law' has been enacted to ensure a fair distribution of education funds.
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