Numerically, the largest single supporting group was industrial workers, but Hitler was disproportionately less successful with them, because the Socialists (SPD) and Communists (KPD) retained their appeal. The Nazis were stronger in the Protestant north than the Catholic south; they appealed successfully to women and the older generation; they were stronger in the countryside than towns and cities. Big business was slow to support Hitler, but their role in the final months before Hitler took power was important; they began to donate substantial sums to the Nazis and it was business and financial leaders who helped to bring Hindenburg and Hitler together in January 1933. Historiography: How are the Factors related/which is most important? ● Gerhard. Ritter, the Weimar republic collapsed in 1933 to due its inability to win the confidence of the general public . The popular resentment towards Weimar republic was a major factor in helping Hitler seizing power in 1933. ● Ian Kershaw, chance, luck and tragic miscalculations were a major factor bringing Hitler to power, and causing the downfall of the Weimar republic. There was nothing inevitable about Hitler’s triumph in 1933. ● E. Anderson, A major factor contributing to the collapse of the Weimar republic was the shrewdness of the political leaders in the Nazi party. The government believed they could control Hitler in his new position as chancellor in 1933. However, they were wrong Hitler managed to outmanoeuvre the government and establish a single party state thanks to his position as chancellor.
6.2 Consolidation/Maintenance of Power General: What methods were used by a single-party ruler to consolidate power and with what success? Nov 2012: Define “totalitarianism” and assess the extent to which it was achieved in Hitler’s Germany. May 2013: By what methods, and with what success, did one single-party leader try to eliminate domestic opposition? May 2013 TZ2: With reference to one totalitarian state, analyse the nature and extent of domestic opposition and the methods used to deal with such opposition. May 2011: With reference to one authoritarian or single-party state, to what extent do you agree that the media was dominated by propaganda? May 2015: Examine the view that internal opposition to Hitler had little impact. May 2016: To what extent did the use of legal methods contribute to the establishment of Hitler’s rule from January 1933? Essay Outline: Hitler’s Consolidation of Power Jan 1933-August 1934 & The extent to which Legal Methods were used Introduction ● Hitler had been elected Chancellor on January 30th 1933… they he could be controlled Within two months of becoming Chancellor, Hitler had largely removed the constitutional limits to his authority ● Two KEY events = Reichstag Fire + Nazi success in (the last) Reichstag election ● Hitler wanted to consolidate his authority via constitutional means ● Wanted Reichstag to pass Enabling Bill to give him personal power ○ He therefore persuaded Hindenburg to hold an election in March ●