Globalization in apparel industry along with the

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low-cost country sourcing strategy. Globalization in apparel industry along with the outsourcing of manufacturing activities to developing nations made the product af fi liation to multiple countries and led to complex supply chains (Geref fi and Frederick 2010 ). 90 A. Yadlapalli and S. Rahman
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In apparel supply chains, large retailers, marketers, or branded manufacturers lead the supply chain (Geref fi and Frederick 2010 ). In most cases, the lead retail fi rm outsources manufacturing process to a global network of suppliers. Huge competition among apparel manufacturers for foreign investments and contracts leave them with a little leverage. This context leads to an opportunistic behaviour among the supply chain members resulting in unacceptable practices along the apparel supply chains. Social issues in the apparel industry are classi fi ed into three major areas: wages, working hours, and working conditions. The industry is accused of paying low wages to workers, using underage and child labour; dis- criminating against gender, religion, and social class; abusing of human rights; introducing acts preventing employees to join unions; and failing to offer minimum labour standards (Awaysheh and Klassen 2010 ). These unethical practices resulted in major disasters in this industry. Table 1 provides the list of incidents in apparel manufacturing. The consequences of these devastating incidents questioned the unacceptable working conditions such as fi re safety and structural integrity of the apparel factories. The apparel industry is characterized by labour-intensive production and limited automation, competitive pressure to lower production costs, and transparency issues with several subcontractors (Park-Poaps and Rees 2010 ). High product variety, high volatility, low predictability, seasonality, and intense competition are the other factors that greatly in fl uence the industry (Perry and Towers 2013 ). For instance, retail buying practices such as shorter lead times and variability in order quantities with demand for lower prices will enforce garment workers to work overtime without proper remuneration (Ruwanpura and Wrigley 2011 ). To maintain a safe workplace and to manage social initiatives at manufacturing facilities, large multinational retailers along with NGOs have developed The Accord on Fire and Building Safety and Alliance for Worker Safety . Though the Accord and Alliance has been developed in Bangladesh context, soon it will be rolled over to the other manufacturers in developing nations. Likewise, several non-pro fi t organizations have developed methodologies such as PAS 2050 and WRAP to measure the environmental and social impact of the apparel manufacturer and to accredit them. Most of these standards are considered as tools for the manufacturers to exhibit their responsibility towards employees and society.
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  • Fall '19
  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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