DSST Fundamentals of counseling

An arbitrary inference is one made when a person

Info icon This preview shows pages 20–21. Sign up to view the full content.

An arbitrary inference is one made when a person feels helpless or worthless based on an arbitrary event, such as feeling like a failure because they washed the car on a day that it rained. This is one of the biased ways that individuals with depression think. The other biased ways of thinking are selective abstraction, overgeneralization, and magnification/minimization. Beck's cognitive therapy contends that people with emotional disturbances operate with schemas that are impossible to live with and focuses on having the patient analyze these schemas. Beck's cognitive therapy is based on engaging the patient in an examination of the schemas, which allows the patient to recognize that there is no evidence to support the schemas. Several studies have shown that Beck's cognitive therapy is effective at treating depression. Cognitive Theory is a system developed by Aaron Beck that emphasizes the role of thinking on one’s actions and behaviors. Cognitive therapy (CT) is characterized by its attention to details and the dissection of the role that thinking plays on the actions of an individual. While psychoanalysis is based on the idea that a person’s unconscious beliefs affect behavior, Beck concentrated on automatic thoughts and beliefs that lead to distress. Essential to the theory of Cognitive therapy is the idea of Automatic thoughts. Automatic thoughts are not unconscious but they occur spontaneously without effort or choice. These automatic thoughts are representative of the deep-seated beliefs we have and they contribute significantly to the way we react to various events or situations or people. In Cognitive Therapy, the way that a person views the world and his or her set of important beliefs about people, events, and the environment form cognitive schemas. These cognitive schemas can be either positive or negative and the effect they have depends on the situation. Example: A person believes that hard work gives a person value and purpose. This cognitive schema is positive for the time that the person is actually working. When that person is no longer working due to a lay-off, retirement, disability, etc… that same schema works negatively and creates feelings of depression and worthlessness. Cognitive schemas are formed early in life and are based on personal experience and interaction with others. In cognitive therapy the approach is collaborative whereby the counselor and client work together to change patterns of thinking that interfere with the client’s goals. Assessment methods often involve keeping logs and tracking feelings and behaviors in order to identify patterns. The counselor and client then work together to create a plan to change the thoughts that will change the patterns of behavior.
Image of page 20

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 21
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern