jurafsky&martin_3rdEd_17 (1).pdf

Crowdsourced emotion lexicon from each of the two

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crowdsourced emotion lexicon from each of the two common theoretical models of emotion. The NRC Word-Emotion Association Lexicon, also called EmoLex (Moham- EmoLex mad and Turney, 2013) , uses the Plutchik (1980) 8 basic emotions defined above. The lexicon includes around 14,000 words chosen partly from the prior lexicons (the General Inquirer and WordNet Affect Lexicons) and partly from the Macquarie Thesaurus, from which the 200 most frequent words were chosen from four parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives (using frequencies from the Google n-gram count). In order to ensure that the annotators were judging the correct sense of the word, they first answered a multiple-choice synonym question that primed the correct sense of the word (without requiring the annotator to read a potentially confusing sense definition). These were created automatically using the headwords associated with the thesaurus category of the sense in question in the Macquarie dictionary and the headwords of 3 random distractor categories. An example: Which word is closest in meaning (most related) to startle? automobile shake honesty entertain For each word (e.g. startle ), the annotator was asked to rate how associated that word is with each of the 8 emotions ( joy , fear , anger , etc.). The associations were rated on a scale of not , weakly , moderately , and strongly associated. Outlier ratings were removed, and then each term was assigned the class chosen by the majority of the annotators, with ties broken by choosing the stronger intensity, and then the 4 levels were mapped into a binary label for each word (no and weak mapped to 0, moderate and strong mapped to 1). Values from the lexicon for some sample words:
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340 C HAPTER 18 L EXICONS FOR S ENTIMENT AND A FFECT E XTRACTION Word anger anticipation disgust fear joy sadness surprise trust positive negative reward 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 worry 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 tenderness 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 sweetheart 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 suddenly 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 thirst 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 garbage 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A second lexicon, also built using crowdsourcing, assigns values on three di- mensions (valence/arousal/dominance) to 14,000 words (Warriner et al., 2013) . The annotaters marked each word with a value from 1-9 on each of the dimen- sions, with the scale defined for them as follows: valence (the pleasantness of the stimulus) 9: happy, pleased, satisfied, contented, hopeful 1: unhappy, annoyed, unsatisfied, melancholic, despaired, or bored arousal (the intensity of emotion provoked by the stimulus) 9: stimulated, excited, frenzied, jittery, wide-awake, or aroused 1: relaxed, calm, sluggish, dull, sleepy, or unaroused; dominance (the degree of control exerted by the stimulus) 9: in control, influential, important, dominant, autonomous, or controlling 1: controlled, influenced, cared-for, awed, submissive, or guided Some examples are shown in Fig. 18.12 Valence Arousal Dominance vacation 8.53 rampage 7.56 self 7.74 happy 8.47 tornado 7.45 incredible 7.74 whistle 5.7 zucchini 4.18 skillet 5.33 conscious 5.53 dressy 4.15 concur 5.29 torture 1.4 dull 1.67 earthquake 2.14 Figure 18.12 Samples of the values of selected words on the three emotional dimensions from Warriner et al. (2013)
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