Europe, Canada, and Australia (Mueller, 2004). Furthermore, groups advo-cating civil liberty rights argue that the historical response to external threathas been internal repression and that the country has not achieved moresafety by ignoring the Constitution, the rule of law, and the liberty of its in-habitants (Adelman, 2002; Chemerinsky, 2006). As in former eras, immigra-tion has become a volatile issue in the United States in the early years of the21st century.Social and Political ChangesUnlike the previous three waves of immigrants, fourth-wave immi-grants have been arriving in a post-civil rights era. The United States is dif-ferent in several ways from the society that hosted the first three waves ofimmigrants. First, the structural factors and contexts of immigration todayare different from those of the past because of the profound impact of thecivil rights movement. Significant changes continue to occur in the nation’smajor political, judicial, social, and educational institutions. Powerful na-tional organizations and many grassroots groups, those supporting immi-grants’ rights and those composed of immigrants themselves, have beenvocal and active. These politically well-connected groups advocate thepreservation of native languages and cultures and the maintenance of eth-nic boundaries. Consequently, nativist rhetoric, arguing for the return to amore homogeneous United States, has been challenged. A growing popu-lace asserts the benefits of ethnic identity conservation and of preservinghome languages for communicating within families and communities.