S labor market for na tive born americans weakening

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bitual worries about immigrants suppressing the U.S. labor market for na-tive-born Americans, weakening cultural unity, and threatening thenation’s monolingual, English-only practice, the most heated topics after9/11 include blocking visa requests for international students, enhancingborder control to prevent the entry of undocumented immigrants, and de-taining and deporting large numbers of undocumented immigrants, someof whom have lived in the United States for decades. The majority of thechildren of undocumented immigrants have been born in the UnitedStates, and they are U.S. citizens on the basis of their birthright (Capps,2005); however, even they have become targets of a growing nativism.Although many people agree that terrorism aimed at the United Statesis a real threat and that both aggressive and defensive measures should betaken to combat it, some argue that no solid evidence shows that the pre-ceding defensive measures are legally valid or practically effective. Theyclaim that some of these efforts reduce U.S. competition in the global econ-omy. For example, the restrictions on admitting international students toU.S. universities have driven many international students to Western 8Educating Immigrant Students in the 21st Century
Europe, Canada, and Australia (Mueller, 2004). Furthermore, groups advo-cating civil liberty rights argue that the historical response to external threathas been internal repression and that the country has not achieved moresafety by ignoring the Constitution, the rule of law, and the liberty of its in-habitants (Adelman, 2002; Chemerinsky, 2006). As in former eras, immigra-tion has become a volatile issue in the United States in the early years of the21st century.Social and Political ChangesUnlike the previous three waves of immigrants, fourth-wave immi-grants have been arriving in a post-civil rights era. The United States is dif-ferent in several ways from the society that hosted the first three waves ofimmigrants. First, the structural factors and contexts of immigration todayare different from those of the past because of the profound impact of thecivil rights movement. Significant changes continue to occur in the nation’smajor political, judicial, social, and educational institutions. Powerful na-tional organizations and many grassroots groups, those supporting immi-grants’ rights and those composed of immigrants themselves, have beenvocal and active. These politically well-connected groups advocate thepreservation of native languages and cultures and the maintenance of eth-nic boundaries. Consequently, nativist rhetoric, arguing for the return to amore homogeneous United States, has been challenged. A growing popu-lace asserts the benefits of ethnic identity conservation and of preservinghome languages for communicating within families and communities.

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