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The human genome contains 20000 to 25000 genes is

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The human genome contains ~20,000 to 25,000 genes & is expressed in every cell in full - Not all cells need or use all of the genes o Some are only needed at certain times e.g. milk proteins during lactation
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o Some are never used by a cell e.g. skin cells never need hemoglobin o Some are always expressed in every cell e.g. cellular respiration enzymes (all cells need ATP) - Gene regulation = the ability of a cell to control which genes are used or not at any given time Chapter 13: Genetic engineering (GMOs & transgenics) - Plants & animals that have modified/recombinant DNA are called transgenic or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - (transgenic & GMOs = synonyms) o Main goals of modern agriculture = grow as much food as possible, as cheaply as possible, with minimal loss from pests - Biotechnology = the use or alteration of organisms, cells, or biological molecules to produce food, drugs, or other goods Human Genome Project: findings - Sequencing DNA: forensics & the Human Genome Project - DNA profiling can be used to identify a person - e.g. paternity tests or criminal investigations - DNA profiling was used in court for the first time in 1986 to exonerate a man wrongly convicted of rape & murder o The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 o Goal = determining the nucleotide sequence of all the DNA in our entire set of genes (our genome) o - DNA profiling is now used whenever possible in criminal or paternity cases - Why was this project undertaken? - Most human DNA (over 99%) is the same for everyone on the planet - But: examining the genomes of many individuals uncovers the varying alleles - May correlate with medical conditions, predispositions to a disease, & different responses to treatments - Thus knowing the sequences of human genes can aid in the treatment of diseases - Comparison of our genome with those of other species will clarify the genetic differences that make us human - General benefits & drawbacks/safety concerns of GMOs - Benefits of GMOs: o Some transgenic crops decrease applications of pesticides (containing carcinogens!), which saves fuel, labor, & money o Can be modified to need less water & nutrients o Can be sold cheaper because of farm savings o Some genetically engineered crops are potentially more nutritious e.g. rice feeds 2/3 of people on Earth
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o Rice is low in many vitamins o Genes from corn inserted into rice creating “golden rice” o Produces more vitamins\ o Transgenic animals can be used to produce Kevlar or medicines o Can also be modified to fatten quicker or produce more milk e.g. Some cows are genetically modified to produce higher levels of growth hormone on their own, thus producing increased amounts of milk o Allows companies to mark the milk as “hormone free,” since they do not have to administer hormones themselves - Drawbacks of GMOs : - Safety concerns have been raised about GMOs o 1. Could ingestion of genetically modified plants be dangerous to humans?
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