consent of the Senate, three persons, not more than two of whom shall be adherents of the same party, as Civil Service Commissioners, and said three commissioners shall constitute the United States Civil Service Commission. Said commissioners shall hold no other official place under the United States. “……And, among other things, said rules shall provide and declare, as nearly as the conditions of good administration will warrant, as follows: First, for open, competitive examinations for testing the fitness of applicants for the public service now classified or to be classified here- under. Such examinations shall be practical in their character, and so far as may be shall relate to those matters which will fairly test the relative capacity and fitness of the persons examined to discharge the duties of the service into which they seek to be appointed.”
2 Questions: 1. Define: Spoils System (Patronage) 2. What President is credited for first using the spoils system? 3. What event prompted the passage of Pendleton Civil Service Act? 3. Define: Merit Based Hiring System 4. What was the purpose of creating the Civil Service Commission? 5. Explain how the Pendleton Civil Service Act attempted to reduce the amount of corruption in government. 6. Analyzing the cartoon above, create a double-bubble map comparing and contrasting the Spoils System and Civil Service Reform.
Name: ____________________________________________ Interstate Commerce Act A10 - Gilded Age U.S. History Railroads were especially important to the expanding nation, and their practices were often criticized. Rail lines extended cheaper freight rates to large shippers by rebating a portion of the charge, thus disadvantaging small shippers. Freight rates also frequently were not proportionate to distance traveled; competition usually held down charges between cities with several rail connections. Rates tended to be high between points served by only one line. Thus, it cost less to ship goods 1,280 kilometers from Chicago to New York than to places a few hundred kilometers from Chicago. Moreover, to avoid competition rival companies sometimes divided ("pooled") the freight business according to a prearranged scheme that placed the total earnings in a common fund for distribution. Popular resentment at these practices stimulated state efforts at regulation, but the problem was national in character. Shippers demanded congressional action. In 1887 President Grover Cleveland signed the Interstate Commerce Act, which forbade excessive charges, pools, rebates, and rate discrimination. It created an Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to oversee the act but gave it little enforcement power. In the first decades of its existence, virtually all the ICC's efforts at regulation and rate reductions failed to pass judicial review. President Cleveland also opposed the protective tariff on foreign goods, which had come to be accepted as permanent national policy under the Republican presidents who dominated the politics of the era. Cleveland, a conservative Democrat, regarded tariff protection as an unwarranted subsidy to big business, giving the trusts pricing power to the disadvantage of ordinary Americans. Reflecting the interests of their Southern base,
- Winter '16
- Mr. Diekavers
- Government, Native Americans in the United States