With the end of the civil war african americans hoped

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With the end of the Civil War, African Americans hoped freedom would usher in a new social order in the south. One in which both whites and whites would enjoy equal access to the social, political, economic, educational, and legal rights enjoyed by whites (not all whites enjoyed these either, but chose to believe they did). Unfortunately, it was clear that though they had lost the civil war and the 13 th Amendment ended slavery, they were just as sure they would not lose control of their “Negroes.” Consequently, during the entire period of Reconstruction 1865-1877 when many blacks participated in some aspects of democracy, whites through legal and extra- legal means sought to restore the south to the way it was before the Civil War, or as close as they could get it. With 1872 repeal of the Iron Clad oath and several Supreme Court decision, including United States v. Reese (1876) , and widespread violence by terroristic organizations like the Klu Klux Klan, African American hope for a new egalitarian social, political, and economic order faded, replaced after the Compromise of l877 by Jim Crow—the segregation of blacks from “cradle to grave.” The Supreme Court’s decision Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) ushered in the period of “de jure” (by law) segregation called “separate but equal.” However, while it was always separate, it was never equal. During the Gilded Age, Southern American blacks followed the leadership of Booker T. Washington, who advocated reconciliation with the new caste system through accommodation. In the North American blacks were subjected to a variation of “separate but equal,” by “de facto” (by fact, but deliberate) segregation. 11. We should also mention some scholars and writers believed the expelling of Native Americans from their land and the virtual extermination of them through wars and broken treaties was genocide. Helen Hunt Jackson writing about this period titled it A Century of Dishonor in her 1881 book. To soothe their consciences Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act (1887) . The Act stated its objective was to assimilate Indians into American mainstream society. For those who accepted it they would receive 160 acres of land to be theirs “forever,” and
6 education to help with their assimilation. Individual ownership of land on the European-American model was seen as an essential. The act also provided that “excess” Indian reservation lands remaining after allotments, would be sold on the open market, allowing purchase and settlement by non-Native Americans. D. Urbanization: 1. To meet employer demands, factories and tenements sprang up overnight. There was virtually no city planning and concern for the new urban workers. The lack of planning and pursuit of profit resulted in unsafe and unsanitary work and home environments. By 1900 cities, especially New York, suffered from high mortality rates, cholera, tuberculosis and other environmental diseases. Immigrants frequently found themselves in crowded tenement buildings while middle class residents took advantage of new transportation like streetcars and moved to suburbs or other

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