5.What are the “Ottawa Ankle Rules” and how are they used in the management of ankle injuries? 1. “Bone tenderness along the distal 6 cm of the posterior edge of the medial or lateral malleolus.” 2. “Bone tenderness directly at the tip of the medial of the medial or lateral malleolus.” 3. “Inability to bear weight and walk 4 steps immediately after the injury or at the emergency room.” 4. “Tenderness of the navicular bone or the base of the fifth metatarsal.” 5. “Tenderness at the middle third of the malleoli, with some improvement in specificity but no change in sensitivity compared with the standard OARs.” The Ottawa Ankle Rules were designed to eliminate the unnecessary radiographs in ankle sprain patients. The rules suggest that radiographs are only necessary when there is pain in the malleolar region and one of the rules above applies. 6.List the management recommendations used in the acute and sub-acute phases of an ankle injury (4 points) 7.Does Electrical Stimulation in human studies show to produce the same results as studies done on animals? Is the use of ES supported in research? (2 points)
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- Fall '17
- Vance Pickard
- ankle sprains, Sprained ankle, Ankle Bracing