Gender differences Do they exist In what ways Nurture Social structural theoryo

Gender differences do they exist in what ways nurture

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° ° Gender differences – Do they exist? In what ways? Nurture: Social structural theory o Male-female differences are of paramount importance and highly noticeable. Given that they exist, they are self-reinforcing Creates a hierarchy Nature: Biology/evolutionary theory o Gender differences are due to men’s larger size and physical capabilities as compared to women. o Gender differences stem from our desire to pass on our genes and the strategies we developed to do so (e.g., Buss, 1995; Buss & Kenrick, 1998). o Our animalistic goal in life is to pass on our genes [via reproduction]. The best way for a man to accomplish this is to impregnate many different women [as there are few risks associated with this for the male]. (Evolutionary) Women would rather be focused on having fewer children and providing more care for those few. (Biology) Other differences o Over 50% of men report thinking about sex daily; Women less than 20% o Men report more arousal and fantasies.
o Men cause more fights about “not enough”. o Lesbians report less frequent sex (and sex thoughts) o Women fantasize more about familiar; Men with strangers/multiple partners Clark and Hatfield (1989) o “Would you go out tonight?” Women: ~50% Men: ~50% o “Will you come over to my apartment?” Women: 6% Men: 69% o “Would you go to bed with me?” Women: 0% Men: 75% Recent studies suggest that women are equally as likely as men to engage in casual sex when they have reason to believe that the sex will be good, whereas men tend to care less about the quality of sex. The hook-up culture o Regnerus & Uecker, 2011 o Sex is cheap today Spread of pornography Use of birth control Few social constraints o Men on college campuses are outnumbered by women. Sexual power driven by minority Men report 30% of their sexual encounters do not involve romance Some indication that women wish for more commitment
When women are in power, they might use that power to gain more commitment, and vice versa for men. Effect sizes on gender differences o Effect size: A way of statistically measuring differences between groups. Effect size = 0: No statistical difference between groups. Higher effect size indicates larger difference between groups (i.e. lesser degree of overlap between the two normal curves) Height is one of the largest effect sizes in gender differences. Meta-analysis: Study that combines data from other studies. Self-fulfilling prophecy of gender stereotypes o Are the stereotypes around gender differences accurate? Hall and Carter (1999) found that stereotypes were to some degree accurate, but this accuracy varied based on both the stereotype and the person making the judgment. Stereotypes emphasize differences and minimize similarities. Self-fulfilling prophecy Skrypneck and Snyder (1982) Male and female “bosses” assigned tasks to anonymous men and women. Found that if “the boss” thought that they were assigning a task to a man, then the task assigned was more masculine (and vice versa).

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