°°Gender differences – Do they exist? In what ways?Nurture: Social structural theoryoMale-female differences are of paramount importance and highly noticeable.Given that they exist, they are self-reinforcingCreates a hierarchyNature: Biology/evolutionary theoryoGender differences are due to men’s larger size and physical capabilities as compared to women.oGender differences stem from our desire to pass on our genes and the strategies we developed to do so (e.g., Buss, 1995; Buss & Kenrick, 1998).oOur animalistic goal in life is to pass on our genes [via reproduction].The best way for a man to accomplish this is to impregnate many different women [as there are few risks associated with this for the male]. (Evolutionary)Women would rather be focused on having fewer children and providing more care for those few. (Biology)Other differencesoOver 50% of men report thinking about sex daily; Women less than 20%oMen report more arousal and fantasies.
oMen cause more fights about “not enough”.oLesbians report less frequent sex (and sex thoughts)oWomen fantasize more about familiar; Men with strangers/multiple partnersClark and Hatfield (1989)o“Would you go out tonight?”Women: ~50%Men: ~50%o“Will you come over to my apartment?”Women: 6%Men: 69%o“Would you go to bed with me?”Women: 0%Men: 75%Recent studies suggest that women are equally as likely as men to engage in casual sex when they have reason to believe that the sex will be good, whereas men tend to care less about the quality of sex.The hook-up cultureoRegnerus & Uecker, 2011oSex is cheap todaySpread of pornographyUse of birth controlFew social constraintsoMen on college campuses are outnumbered by women.Sexual power driven by minorityMen report 30% of their sexual encounters do not involve romanceSome indication that women wish for more commitment
When women are in power, they might use that power to gain more commitment, and vice versa for men.Effect sizes on gender differencesoEffect size: A way of statistically measuring differences between groups.Effect size = 0: No statistical difference between groups.Higher effect size indicates larger difference between groups (i.e. lesser degree of overlap between the two normal curves)Height is one of the largest effect sizes in gender differences.Meta-analysis: Study that combines data from other studies.Self-fulfilling prophecy of gender stereotypesoAre the stereotypes around gender differences accurate?Hall and Carter (1999) found that stereotypes were to some degreeaccurate, but this accuracy varied based on both the stereotype and the person making the judgment.Stereotypes emphasize differences and minimize similarities.Self-fulfilling prophecySkrypneck and Snyder (1982)Male and female “bosses” assigned tasks to anonymous men and women.Found that if “the boss” thought that they were assigning a task to a man, then the task assigned was more masculine (and vice versa).