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• Hypoxic Hypoxia—inadequate supply of oxygen (going to high altitudes) • Hypemic Hypoxia—inability of the blood to carry oxygen (Carbon Monoxide) • Stagnant Hypoxia—inadequate circulation of oxygen (excessive G forces) • Histotoxic Hypoxia—inability of the cells to effectively use oxygen (by alcohol or drugs) Supplemental Oxygen: FAR requirements • 12,500—14,000 ft MSL = Flight crew must use O2 after 30 minutes • 14,000—15,000 ft MSL = Flight crew must use O2 • 15,000—Above = Flight crew must use O2 and all occupants must be provided with O2 Hyperventilation: occurs with excessive loss of carbon dioxide. You need to slow the breathing rate, breathing into a bag or talking aloud. Decompression Sickness • Is a painful condition that can occur if flying too soon after diving. It is very important that you allow enough time for the body to rid itself of excess nitrogen absorbed during diving. • Ascending to 8,000 ft MSL after a dive not requiring a controlled ascent = 12 hours • Above 8,000 ft MSL or any dive requiring a controlled ascent = 24 hours Self Assessment: (I’m Safe, Checklist) • Illness • Medication • Stress • Alcohol • Fatigue • Eating Flight Instrument Systems (Chapter 2) Gyroscopic Instruments: • Include the turn coordinator, attitude indicator and heading indicator. They operate off of a gyro’s tendency to remain rigid in space. • Give the vacuum-driven heading indicator and attitude indicator 5 minutes to spin up during taxi. Turn Coordinator (Vacuum driven) • Provides an indication of the aircraft’s rate of movement about the yaw and roll axes. • During taxi turns, the ball should move to the outside of the turn, and the needle should deflect in the direction of the turn. Skids and Slips • The inclinometeris part of the turn indicator that tells whether you are using the correct angle of bank for the rate of turn. Step on the ball to correct a slipping or skidding condition. • Allows you to establish and maintain standard-rate turns of 3 degrees per second. • During a constant-bank turn, an increase in airspeed results in a decreased rate of turn, and an increased turn radius. Attitude Indicator (Vacuum driven) • A pilot determines the direction of bank from the attitude indicator by the relationship of the miniature airplane to the deflected horizon bar. • The only instrument that give both pitch and bank info. • The most noticeable errors occur when the aircraft rolls out of a 180 degree turn and cancels after 360 of turn.
• During acceleration, the horizon bar moves down, indicating a climb, and during deceleration, the instrument may indicate a slight descent. Heading Indicator (Electric) • Must be periodically realigned with the magnetic compass.• Is your primary source of heading information. Magnetic Compass; contains a bar magnet, which swings freely to align with the Earth’s magnetic field. Deviation; caused by the magnetic field in the aircraft distorting the lines of magnetic force.