Conventional agents generally suffer with serious

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Conventional agents generally suffer with serious problems such as less binding ef fi ciency to textile surfaces, and other properties of textile substrates can also be altered with their application such as comfort nature of clothing and durability. Conventional methods as described above often do not produce permanent func- tionality imparted to textiles surfaces due to which fabrics lose their properties during different processing stages such as wearing, washing, dry-cleaning, and hot pressing. Nanotechnology has the potential to overcome these limitations of con- ventional methods and provide durability of textile functions (Gao and Cranston 2008 ; Lombi et al. 2014 ). 4 Nanomaterials in Functional Finishing Substantial investigations have revealed the production and application of diverse nanoparticles which include silver, gold, titanium, copper, and zinc onto textile surfaces. Some of the most studied nanomaterials are shown in Fig. 4 . Owing to their remarkable properties, they have been employed to fabricate clothing for warmth, comfort, hygienic applications, and style (Dastjerdi et al. 2009 ). Nanomaterials in various forms such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, and nanocomposites are being used for UV protection, conductive, water repellent, antibacterial, and deodorizing functionalization of textiles. They can be applied onto textile surfaces by different means like in situ synthesis of them, spraying and 106 Shahid-ul-Islam et al.
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other wet processes. To get the deposition coef fi cient of high degree, textiles can be treated fi rst with other means also such as plasma. 4.1 Overview of Commonly Employed Nanoparticles in Functional Finishing Physical and chemical methods are the most popular methods for the production of nanoparticles. Over the past few decades, production of metal nanoparticles by green chemistry method using plant extracts and enzymes is receiving much attention as some chemical methods cannot avoid the use of toxic and hazardous reagents therefore posing environmental challenges (Islam et al. 2014 ). Plants are enriched by a variety of natural products including reducing and stabilizing agents and hence seem to be the best candidates for large-scale biosynthesis of different nanoparticles (Iravani 2011 ). The synthesized nanoparticles fi nd application in different fi elds including textile dyeing and fi nishing. Silver nanoparticles are the most studied nanomaterials for functionalization of textiles. They have strong antimicrobial activity and produce different hues depending up on their size and shape. A number of reports are available in the literature on the application of silver nanoparticles onto cotton, wool, silk, polyamide, and other synthetic textile surfaces (Dubas et al. 2006 ; Rai et al. 2009 ). Because of their surface plasma resonance property, silver nanoparticles have been employed to impart yellow, brown, red, gray, and other novel shades on textile surfaces. Both in situ and ex situ methods of silver nanoparticles application have been tested, and it has been discovered that
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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