Subsistence and maximize their gains this alienated

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subsistence and maximize their gains. This alienated workers from the fruits of their labor (they didn'town and couldn't afford anything they actually made in the factory), their labor itself (they now hatedwork), each other (their competition).So what about religion? Marx thought the Bourgeoisie class used culture to maintain its own classposition by maintaining something called "false consciousness," basically the fact that workers don'trealize they're being exploited and so don't revolt and start a revolution. Religion was a part of thissystem for maintaining false consciousness.Marx felt that economic inequalities were the bedrock foundation of society as we know it (the base),and the "super-structure" consisted of the various institutions the ruling class had in place to maintainthe deception. The superstructure included the arts, media, education, and religion. Religion, Marxthought, was used by the ruling class to dupe poor workers and make them feel better about theirsituation when they really should've been demanding radical change, by force if necessary. His mostfamous quote about religion is taken from an essay called, "Toward a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy ofthe Right:“The struggle against religion is, therefore, indirectly the struggle against that world whose spiritualaroma is religion. Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and aprotest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartlessworld, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as theillusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up theirillusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions.”Marx ultimately didn't write a lot about religion, mostly because he thought that once the economicinequality was overturned following the communist revolution, religion would just disappear. Wewouldn't need an "illusion" to justify an unjust situation.But capitalism wasn't overthrown. It proved far more resilient than Marx ever thought. One Marxistsocial theorist who tried to explain this resilience was Antonio Gramsci, who lived from 1891 to 1937. Hemade the observation that maintaining power by force is difficult. It takes a lot of energy to point guns atpeoples heads or kill folks. It's far better to rule by the consent of those who are ruled. But how?Gramsci came up with the concept of "cultural hegemony"to talk about how this was accomplished.Basically cultural hegemony refers to the situation where those who are being ruled have completelybought into the value system of the ruling class and consequently they come to see their own subjectionas totally common sense and even participate in the maintenance of it.

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