Attraction remains dominant over repulsion until the

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Attraction remains dominant over repulsion until the atoms reach a distance where the two are equal. As the repulsion becomes increasingly stronger, there is a sharp rise in potential energy as repulsion overtakes attraction. Characteristics of the Covalent Bonding: At the point of balance, the electrons orbit around both of the nuclei The molecule vibrates, but as long as the potential energy remains to its minimum, they atoms will stay covalent bonded. The length between the two atoms at their minimum potential energies is called bond length An amount of energy is released when atoms go from neutral isolated atoms to covalently bonded molecules. This results from the difference between the potential energy at zero, and the potential energy at the point of bonding The same energy is needed to separate the bond. This is called bond energy. Usually measures in kJ/mol The ability of atoms to bond to achieve noble gas configuration extends beyond hydrogen Noble gasses have minimum potential energy as is because they have filled outermost s and p sublevels. Octet Rule: chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level. Not ALL chemical bonds conform to the octet rule.
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Expanded valence, requires more than 8 electrons, and fills the d orbital as well as the s and p.
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