1 contact 2 droplet 3 airborne 4 standard 3 because

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1 Contact 2 Droplet 3 Airborne 4 Standard 3 Because tuberculosis is a respiratory infection that can be easily spread through the air and via respiratory secretions, airborne precautions are required until the presence or absence of infection is confirmed. Droplet precautions are appropriate for larger molecule pathogens such as bacterial meningitis. Standard precautions are instituted for all patients to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infections. Contact precautions are used for infections that spread by skin-to-skin contact, such as methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). 37. The nurse should assess a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for which most common symptoms? 1 Tremors and bradykinesia 2 Hematuria and abdominal pain 3 Persistent vomiting and headache 4 Low-grade fever and persistent diarrhea 4 The symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are variable, but low-grade fever and persistent diarrhea are common. Tremors and bradykinesia, hematuria and abdominal pain, and persistent vomiting and headache are not specifically associated with AIDS.
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38. A patient with chronic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as medication for tuberculosis. What does the nurse anticipate observing when reviewing laboratory studies for this patient? Select all that apply. 1 Neutropenia 2 Lymphopenia 3 High platelet count 4 Normal hemoglobin levels 5 Abnormal liver function tests 1,5 The patient may have abnormal liver function tests due to treatment with antitubercular drugs such as isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). These drugs are hepatotoxic and may derange the liver function tests. The patient is treated on ART, which may also cause neutropenia. A high platelet count, normal hemoglobin levels, and lymphopenia may not be significant findings when on therapy with ART and antitubercular drugs. 39. The nurse is preparing to administer an antibiotic for a patient with methicillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Which antibiotic does the nurse administer that will be most effective for treatment? 1 Methicillin 2 Penicillin G 3 Ceftazidime 4 Vancomycin 4 Vancomycin is the preferred antibiotic in treating MRSA. By definition, MRSA is resistant to methicillin. Penicillin G can be used to treat Enterococcus faecium because this organism is resistant to vancomycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin. Klebsiella pneumonia strains that are resistant to ceftazidime should be treated with imipenem and cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem. 40. Which patient is at the highest risk for developing a healthcare-associated infection (HAI)? 1 A 66-year-old patient with an indwelling Foley catheter 2 A 45-year-old patient scheduled for a partial colectomy 3 A 75-year-old patient admitted to the coronary care unit with acute angina 4 A 35-year-old patient status post (s/p) emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy 1 The 66-year-old patient with an indwelling Foley catheter is at the greatest risk for an HAI because elderly adults have weaker immune systems and an indwelling catheter provides a reservoir for the transmission of bacteria from the device to the bladder. A
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