–
Scale: 0 - 100
•
What is the temperature today?
–
Scale: Celsius or Fahrenheit
36

13
There are 4 types of primary scales
Primary Scales
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Categorical
Metric
37
•
Nominal scale – no rank-ordering between values
–
Example:
Which one of the following media influences your
purchasing decisions the most?
1. TV
2. Radio
3. Newspaper
•
Ordinal scale – rank ordering between values
–
Example:
Which of the following describes your level of
education (please circle the number on the left)
1.
Did not complete high school
2.
High school graduate
3.
Some College
4.
College graduate
5.
Postgraduate degree
Categorical scales: nominal vs. ordinal scale
38
Examples of categorical questions and scales used
Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
39

14
•
This includes
all
the examples of metric questions we
used earlier in this week’s lecture
•
Interval scale is a type of metric scale
–
You can talk about “average customer satisfaction”, or “average
importance rating”, and etc
•
Examples of other types of interval scales – temperature
(Fahrenheit or Celsius)
Interval scale - most measures of the strength of
feelings, emotions, attitude and beliefs are based on
an interval scale
40
There is one scale that we have left out in our
lecture so far:
ratio
Scale
•
You use ratio scale to provide exact quantity measures of
tangible things
•
Example:
What is your annual income before taxes? ___
What makes a ratio scale and how does it differentiate from
interval scale?
•
A natural, unambiguous 0 (e.g., $0)
41
Ratio Scale Examples
42

15
The science behind how different scales are classified - whether they exhibit three properties
Properties
Description
Order
property
Establish ‘relative magnitude’ to rank order objects
e.g. 1st−2nd−3rd; 90 kg > 60 kg; frequent vs infrequent
Distance
property
Absolute differences between objects
e.g. (six children – three children) = three children;
income (in $); age (in years)
Origin property
Unique descriptor for ‘true state of nothing’
e.g., asking height or age; number of times to shop
during a week; market share
43
Primary scales - summary
No
44
Scale is chosen by you the researcher, so it is possible for the
same variable to be measured by different primary scales
Example
•
Which of the following describes your annual income
before tax (please circle the number on the left)
1.
<$20,000
2.
$20,000 to <$50,000
3.
$50,000 to <$80,000
4.
$80,000 to <$120,000
5.
$120,000 and above
Or
•
What is your annual income before taxes? ___
Ordinal scale, so
income data thus
collected is
categorical
Ratio scale, so
income data thus
collected is
metric
45

16
Recap: 4 types of primary scales
Primary Scales
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Categorical
Metric
46
Recap: the dichotomy of
categorical
vs.
metric
Categorical
Questions
Categorical
Data
Categorical
Scale
Metric
Questions
Metric
Data
Metric
Scale
47
•
Metric – data that you can add, subtract, and compute
averages for
•
Categorical – can
NOT
add, subtract, or compute
averages for (even if it is coded as numbers, such as in
marital status on the previous page)
This is an important distinction because comparative
research questions entail comparing these averages.

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