When infant crawled away from rat his or her behavior

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When infant crawled away from rat, his or her behavior was rewarded and his or her fear was reduced o When infant saw any stimulus similar to a rat (rabbit, fur coat), learned fear was generalized to all of them When using human participants, researchers need to ensure participants have informed consent o There are 2 important things when doing research with babies and children (1) Parental consent – parents need informed judgment about risks and benefits of the study Parents may provide consent for procedures w/ risk like medical treatments (2) Informed consent more complex for kids in orphanages, foster care, prisons, psychiatric ward Brings up the issue of who is the guardian who should provide consent Demonstrating that you could condition emotional responses shifted the conversation about how to treat fear o Phobia – excessive fair that impairs a person’s life in some way o Major way to treat fears is using the principles of learning – unlearning a fear response Extinction – disappearance of a previously learned behavior when not reinforced Conditioning can be split into 3 different stages o (1) Acquisition – pairing a neutral stimulus (NS) w/ an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Strength of conditioned response is expected to increase if NS is repeatedly paired w/ UCS o (2) Extinction – presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) alone Strength of conditioned response is expected to fade if CS is presented alone o Period of no exposure to the controlled stimulus btwn stage 2 and 3 o (3) Spontaneous recovery & re-extinction – presenting the controlled stimulus alone Spontaneous recovery – sudden re-emergence of a fear response after no exposure to CS One of the most effective treatments for phobias is exposure therapy or extinction therapy o Continually present stimuli associated w/ fear in a safe & neutral context until fear response decreases Instrumental conditioning – useful for trying to get someone to change their behavior or do something o Thorndike – researched animals and how they’d try to escape puzzle boxes
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Puzzle boxes – contraption w/ lots of different things that needed to be done in order to escape o If the animal solves the puzzle box, it would take them less time if they were put back in the box Law of Effect – idea that if some action brings about a positive outcome, it will be more likely to be repeated Classical conditioning is about learning an association btwn a stimulus and another stimulus to produce a response Instrumental conditioning is about learning an association btwn a behavior, its effect, and its outcome Shaping Video about a dog opening a suitcase and putting his things inside of it o Trial and error – dog wants to be rewarded and tries various actions until an action where he is rewarded Dog will make errors until one action works by chance and gets him a reward o Responses learned by trial and error performed in a sequence results in
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