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19 describe how disturbances in the jet stream help

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19. Describe how disturbances in the jet stream help distribute heat throughout the Earth’s atmosphere? What is created within the jet stream to help distribute this heat? Listen to lecture notes carefully. Review. GE101 – Natural Environment: The Atmosphere Study Guide Worksheet Lecture 9 – Highs and Lows Complete the following worksheet using the Lecture 9 slides and 156-176 in the textbook. 1. What is a ridge? What type of pressure system is associated with a ridge? Explain. A ridge is an elongated region of clockwise curvature in the wind field Anticyclonic (HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM) Drawn as a zigzagging line 2. What is a trough? What type of pressure system is associated with a trough? Explain. A trough is an elongated region of counterclockwise curvature in the wind field Cyclonic (LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM) Drawn as a curved line (sometimes dashed) 3. In the upper level wind field, the geostrophic wind is always applied in areas where the wind field is straight and parallel. ( True / False) 4. In the upper level wind field, where are wind speeds minimized? Describe the forces involved and their orientation/magnitude. 5. In the upper level wind field, where are the wind speeds maximized? Describe the forces involved and their orientation/magnitude. 6. In relation to the upper level wind field, where do we find convergence? Why?

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7. In relation to the upper level wind field, where do we find divergence? Why? 8. Upper level ___________ convergence ___________ leads to sinking air creating low level ________ divergence _________ at the surface. In return, a __ high _ pressure system is created. 9. Upper level _________ divergence ______ leads to rising air creating low level __________ convergence ________ at the surface. In return, a ___ low ___ pressure system is created. 10. Low pressure at the surface leads to adiabatic cooling. Explain this statement. Describe the weather created. Stormy Weather!!! Jet stream speeds up near the tropopause Atmosphere “stretches apart” downwind of an upper-level trough Upper-level divergence Mass is removed from column Upward vertical motion (chimney) is induced Rising air cools adiabatically. Temperature drops down to the dew point Air becomes saturated (RH = 100%) Any further cooling results in condensation Cloud bases appear at the Lifting Condensation Level As cooling continues, cloud droplets (or crystals) grow heavier than air and fall as precipitation 11. High pressure at the surface leads to adiabatic warming. Explain this statement. Describe the weather created. Fair Weather!!! Jet stream slows down near the tropopause Atmosphere piles up downwind of an upper-level ridge Upper-level convergence Mass is added to column Downward vertical motion ( damper ) is induced Sinking air warms adiabatically:
Temperature and dew point move apart Relative humidity falls Water goes from liquid to vapor state ( evaporates ) Clouds disappear Clear conditions accompany High pressure 12. Describe how a low pressure system at the surface strengthens and weakens.

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