Physical Science 8th grade (1).pdf

Diameter of sun diameter of image of sun distance

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Diameter of Sun Diameter of image of Sun Distance from viewer to paper ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Distance from Earth to Sun × = 200 150 100 50 0 1954 1964 1974 1984 1994 2004 Year Number of Sunspots Chapter 16 Activity
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C HAPTER 16 T HE S UN AND S TARS 353 Chapter 16 Assessment Vocabulary Select the correct term to complete the sentences. Section 16.1 1. Small, dark areas on the surface of the sun representing relatively cooler areas are named ____. 2. A reaction in which hydrogen atoms combine to form helium, releasing large amounts of energy is called ____. 3. ____ are enormous, hot balls of gas held together by gravity. 4. A ____ is the distance light travels in one year. 5. A very large, bright star that may be blue or red, depending upon its temperature, is called a ____. 6. A stable star in the HR diagram’s main category is a ____ star. 7. A large star with low temperature and high brightness is a(n) ____. Section 16.2 8. A system of two stars tied together by gravity and orbiting each other is known as a(n) ____. 9. A huge cloud of dust from which stars are formed is known as a ____. 10. A method of studying an object by examining the visible light and other electromagnetic waves it creates is known as ____. 11. The name for a small star with high temperature and low brightness is ____. 12. The first stage in the life cycle of a star is known as a ____. 13. Astronomers call the explosion of a very large star a ____. Concepts Section 16.1 1. Why are solar flares important to the average person in the United States? 2. How are solar flares formed? 3. Arrange the layers of the sun listed below in order from innermost core to the outermost layer: a. chromosphere b. core c. corona d. photosphere 4. Describe two changes due to the fusion of hydrogen. 5. List three conditions that must exist for the continuous fusion of hydrogen to occur. 6. Describe the color changes that occur in matter as it is heated. 7. Which has the highest surface temperature? a. A red star b. A white star c. A blue star 8. Where in a star does fusion occur 9. Name the two most common elements in the universe. Are they also the most common elements on Earth? red giant nebula supergiant supernova light years sunspots white dwarf protostar nuclear fusion brightness spectroscopy main sequence stars protostar binary star stars
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354 C HAPTER 16 T HE S UN AND S TARS 10. Describe our sun in terms of color, brightness, size and temperature compared to other stars in the galaxy. 11. Why is an H-R diagram useful to astronomers? Section 16.2 12. A spectrometer is a tool astronomers find very useful. a. How does it work? b. What information can an astronomer find using a spectrometer? 13. What does the lifespan of a star depend on? 14. List the stages in the life cycle of a typical medium-sized star like the sun. 15. Describe what astronomers believe will happen to our sun after it leaves the main sequence.
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