1860FW12L2 -Antiquity, the Renaissance, Sci Rev

The 4 humors the 4 humors added after early

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The 4 Humors
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The 4 Humors Added after early Hippocratic writings
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Humoral Theory A framework for both understanding and curing disease Illness is cured when the body is brought into balance (of heat and moisture levels) Bleeding, starving, purging etc. used to treat conditions “epilepsy” caused by phlegm clogging vessels in head, therefore open or warm the skull to thin the fluids Drill holes in the skull after injury to prevent humors from accumulating there
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Herophilos 335-280 BCE “Father of Anatomy” Taught and practised in Alexandria, Egypt First to do dissections, perhaps including human dissections (they were not banned in his time) Interested in the brain Wrote about the cerebrum, cerebellum and ventricles Distinguished nerves from tendons and blood vessels Dissected the eye
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Aristotle, 384-322 BCE born in Macedonia father was court physician tutor to Alexander the Great Plato’s student in the Academy founder of the Lyceum in Athens
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Aristotle, and the heart/brain debate The heart is the centre of intellect and perception Based on heat – brain is too cool for these functions Brain’s role is to cool heat from heart (which rises) Chick embryo – heartbeat is observed first
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Aristotle, and the heart/brain debate The heart is the centre of intellect and perception Based on heat – brain is too cool for these functions Brain’s role is to cool heat from heart (which rises) Chick embryo – heartbeat is observed first Observation of nature
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Galen of Pergamon 129-200 CE Great influence on Western medicine for centuries Trained in Alexandria, travelled widely Physician to gladiators in Pergamon court physician in Rome Dissected pigs and monkeys (humans not permitted) Added temperments to humoral theory
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Humors and temperments
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Galen and the Nervous System Disagreed with Aristotle about the function of the brain – if it were for cooling it would be closer to the heart Sensory and motor nerves distinguished, pathways suggested Ventricles of the brain thought to store animal spirits, later sent to the muscles for action or sensation Brain connected to imagination, intellect, memory - speculations-on-the-nervous-systems-of-sauropods/
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Ventricular Localization Ventricles – cavities in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid The higher functions attributed to ventricles by Galen Nemesius, bishop of Emesa, Syria (fl. 390) Perception in lateral ventricles Cognition in middle ventricle Memory in posterior ventricle “If the front ventricles have suffered any kind of lesion, the sense are impaired but the faculty of intellect is as before. It is when the middle of the brain is affected that the mind is deranged .... If it is the cerebellum that is damaged, only loss of memory follows ....
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  • Spring '08
  • AGARD/LANDZBY
  • Ancient Egypt, Cerebrospinal fluid, Galen, Ventricular system, Edwin Smith Papyrus

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