NE102 Lecture Notes 3

Specific neuronal proteins associated with v snares

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membrane to prepare for fusion.  Specific neuronal proteins associated with v-SNAREs (synaptotagmin) causes vesicle to  fuse by changing information in response to calcium binding  Receptors on the postsynaptic cell can have different mechanisms of signal  transduction (they are not all gated ion channels) Two main classes: Ionotropic (ligand-gated ion channels) Metabotropic (G-protein-coupled receptors) 1. Neurotransmitter binds 2. G-protein is activated. 3. G-protien subunits or intracellular messengers modulate ion channels. 4. Ion channel opens. 5. Ions flow across membrane.  SHORT- AND LONG-TERM POLASTICITY, INCLUDING LTP Neural plasticity  – Neural changes cause by experience/interactions with the  environment, not a genetically set developmental program.  Ex.) changes in ion channel numbers/distributions Ex.) addition or pruning of synapses Metabotropic NT receptors can activate intracellular signaling pathways like any other  GPCRs and effect long-term changes. 
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Neuronal Biophysics III/Synaptic Plasticity 18:04 LTP – one of the longest lasting types of neuroplasticity that is fairly well understood at  cellular level  LTP can also lead to very long-lasting structural changes (lecture 13) Does LTP occur whenever a neuron receives rapid input from a given presynaptic  No. The post synaptic cell has to be active in firing APs too.  During LTP, a synapse is strengthened if: The presynaptic cell is firing APs… To explain LTP, need a mechanism that can explain this pairing NMDA receptors of the NT glutamate have a double-gating mechanism  Both gates are open only when both neurons are firing together.  Active NMDA receptors initiate an intracellular signaling cascade that strengthens the  synapse.  NMDA receptors are the molecular paring mechanism Calcium ions can’t move into the NMDA receptors because magnesium ions are  blocking them.  (@ resting potential) Calcium ions move into the NMDA receptors when magnesium ions are expelled form  NMDA receptor (@ postsynaptic depolarization) Calcium influx initiaes signaling cascade that increases number of AMPA receptors at  this  particular  synapse. In the postsynaptic cell: More AMPA receptors = more sodium influx per incoming AP = EPSP amplitude is  stronger = probability of firing goes up
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Fundamentals of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) 18:04 Fundamentals of Alzheimer’s Disease The Person – Symptoms & Disease Progression Macroscopic Features Microscopic Features THE PERSON – SYMPTOMS AND DISEASE PROGRESSION Alzheimer’s Disease = a progressive form of dementia Dementia:  a loss of menta/cognitive function Progressive:  the onset of symptoms in older individual & worsening of symptoms  through time (~ 8-10 years from diagnosis to death)
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