A simple wine press and organic remains of grapes and vines were found in a cave in Armenia - Evidence suggests that the wild grape was domesticated between the Caspian & Black Seas Information on Diet & Food • Animal or faunal remains “are usually better preserved” on archaeological sites than floral remains. • Are the animal remains present through human activity [hunting, butchery etc.], animal predation, or natural causes? • Taphonomy: “The study of processes which have affected organic materials such as bone after death.” Lecture 5 • “Taphonomy is the assessment of what has happened to a bone between its deposition and its discovery” in the archaeological record.
Study of Animal Teeth - “Teeth survive more successfully than bones, and quite accurate assessments of an animal’s age are possible from them.” - Teeth [like trees] have growth rings. Tools, Tech, Trade, Transportation February 26 2019 Stone Wood Textiles Pottery Glass Metal & Mines Tools are the ways in which we act upon the world Humans were known for their ability for making tools Chapter 8 Material of Wood and Tech March 5 th , 2019 Wood and Warcraf Lebanese cedar (Boat made of cedar) Was put together Egyptians also built cargo ships Egyptians used cedar for various projects Egyptians boats Oldest vessels T he story of Wenamon, a luckless Egyptian priest in search of cedar Went through a lot to get this cedar (pirates, thieves, storms) Testimony to the importance of cedar to the Egyptians
Trireme (war ship) No surviving pieces of the Trireme The Olympias (Reconstruction of the Greek Trireme) Tested on the Mediterranean to see if it had to power of a war ship The Oseberg ship Burial Excavated in 1904 and dated to 834 AD Viking ship was built of Oak with carved details Was well preserved Grave goods include sleighs Organic Materials; Plant and animal fibers – Weaving baskets, weaving textiles Textiles are the most popular jobs for women in Ancient Greece Made from wool, flax, cotton plant Spun by hand with a spindle and a whorl Can use natural dyes Pottery Wheel Williams Longhouses Alex Allies Presentation March 19, 2019 Site on Anishinaabe and indigenous land Kitchener Ontario Being turned into a housing area 4 stages of evacuations Ploughzone Archeology - Ploughzone archaeology occurs where stratigraphy has been disturbed by agricultural methods such as tillage Location 1 – tools, pottery, jewelry, botanical remains, weapons Dating methods Stone artifacts (axe, shanks, hammers) Artifacts of smoking pipes Personal items such as jewelry are rare and valuable Interpretations of the village - Late woodland period (630AD-1650AD) o Middleport woodland village (1400AD) - Association between all 3 locations as one settlement - Moyer Village Location 1 has been fully excavated
Location 4 has been fully excavated Location 27 has been fully excavated Chapter 11 March 26, 2019 Disease, death and deformity - Examining human remains with minimum damage - Non-destructive techniques: xeroadiography -
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- Archaeology, roman roads, Ship burial, Oseberg ship