Summative assessments are often high stakes which

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Summative assessments are often high stakes , which means that they have a high point value. Examples of summative assessments include: midterm exam final project paper senior recital
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Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced Assessments: Dimension Criterion-Referenced Tests Norm-Referenced Tests Purpose To determine whether each student has achieved specific skills or concepts. To find out how much students know before instruction begins and after it has finished. To rank each student with respect to the achievement of others in broad areas of knowledge. To discriminate between high and low achievers. Content Measures specific skills, which make up a designated curriculum. Teachers and curriculum experts identify these skills. Each skill is expressed as an instructional objective. Measures broad skill areas sampled from a variety of textbooks, syllabi, and the judgments of curriculum experts. Item Characteristics Each skill is tested by at least four items in order to obtain an adequate sample of student performance and to minimize the effect of guessing. The items, which test any given skill, are parallel in difficulty. Less than four items usually test each skill. Items vary in difficulty. Items are selected that discriminate between high and low achievers. Score Interpretation Each individual is compared with a preset standard for acceptable achievement. The performance of other examinees is irrelevant. A student's score is usually expressed as a percentage. Student achievement is reported for individual skills. Each individual is compared with other examinees and assigned a score--usually expressed as a percentile, a grade equivalent score, or a stanine. Student achievement is reported for broad skill areas, although some norm-referenced tests do report student achievement for individual skills.
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The following tables list the characteristics for each stage of orthographic (spelling) development. The tables list what students do correctly, what they confuse, and what is missing at the early, middle, and late parts of each stage. Characteristics of Emergent Spelling: What Students Do Correctly What Students Use but Confuse What is Absent Early Emergent Mark on the page Hold the writing implement Scribbling & drawing for writing Letters Directionality Middle Emergent Linear movement across page Clear distinction between writing and drawing Letters & Numbers Letter strings Directionality Phonemic Awareness Sound-symbol correspondences Late Emergent Consistent directionality Use of letters Some letter-sound matches Substitutions of letters that sound, feel, and look alike: B/P and D/B Complete sound- symbol correspondence Spacing between words
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Characteristics of Letter Name-Alphabetic Spelling: What Students Do Correctly What Students Use but Confuse What is Absent Early Letter Name- Alphabeti c B, BD for bed S, SP for ship YN for when Partial phonological awareness Represent prominent sounds, usually beginning consonants Directionality Use most letters of the alphabet Partial spelling of
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  • Vowel, Consonant

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