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Summative assessments are often high stakes, which means that they have a high point value. Examples of summative assessments include:midterm examfinal projectpapersenior recital
Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced Assessments:DimensionCriterion-ReferencedTestsNorm-ReferencedTestsPurposeTo determine whether each student has achieved specific skills or concepts.To find out how much students know before instruction begins and after it has finished.To rank each student with respect to the achievement of others in broad areas of knowledge.To discriminate between high and low achievers.ContentMeasures specific skills, which make up a designated curriculum. Teachers and curriculum experts identify theseskills.Each skill is expressed as an instructional objective.Measures broad skill areas sampled from a variety of textbooks, syllabi, and the judgments of curriculum experts.ItemCharacteristicsEach skill is tested by at least four items in order to obtain an adequate sample of studentperformance and to minimize theeffect of guessing.The items, which test any given skill, are parallel in difficulty.Less than four items usually test each skill.Items vary in difficulty.Items are selected that discriminatebetween highand low achievers.ScoreInterpretationEach individual is compared with a preset standard for acceptable achievement. The performance of other examinees is irrelevant.A student's score is usually expressed as a percentage.Student achievement is reported for individual skills.Each individual is compared with other examinees and assigned a score--usually expressed as a percentile, a grade equivalent score, or a stanine.Student achievement is reported for broad skill areas, although some norm-referenced tests do report student achievementfor individual skills.
The following tables list the characteristics for each stage of orthographic (spelling) development. The tables list what students do correctly, what they confuse, and what is missing at the early, middle, and late parts of each stage.Characteristics of Emergent Spelling:What Students Do CorrectlyWhat Students Use but ConfuseWhat is AbsentEarly EmergentMark on the pageHold the writing implementScribbling & drawing for writingLettersDirectionalityMiddle EmergentLinear movement across pageClear distinction between writing and drawingLetters & NumbersLetter stringsDirectionalityPhonemic AwarenessSound-symbol correspondencesLate EmergentConsistent directionalityUse of lettersSome letter-sound matchesSubstitutions of letters that sound,feel, and look alike:B/P and D/BComplete sound-symbol correspondenceSpacing between words
Characteristics of Letter Name-Alphabetic Spelling:What Students Do CorrectlyWhat Students Use but ConfuseWhat is AbsentEarly Letter Name-AlphabeticB, BD for bedS, SP for shipYN for whenPartial phonological awarenessRepresent prominent sounds, usually beginning consonantsDirectionalityUse most letters of the alphabetPartial spelling of